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Entries found for search: MIDI

audio-to-MIDI : Software or hardware that takes a monophonic instrumental or vocal line, analyzes the pitches, amplitude, and timbre, and converts the line to MIDI notes, complete with pitch-bend, MIDI velocity and volume, and possibly additional controller data.

MIDI Note Number : The decimal number, from 0-128, which represents the equal temperament scale of about eight octaves, where 60 represents Middle-C, having a frequency of 261.63Hz. The MIDI note number 36, for example, corresponds to the 4th key on a piano, referred to as C1, with a frequency of 32.7Hz. Middle-C is sometimes called C3 or C4, depending on the author. Commonly, modern instruments are tuned to A440, that is A3/A4, MIDI note number 69.

FreeMIDI : A Macintosh operating system extension developed by MOTU that enables different programs to share MIDI data. For example, a sequencer could communicate with a librarian program to display synthesizer patch names, rather than just numbers, in the sequencer’s editing windows.

General MIDI (GM) : A subset of the MIDI specification which is a minimum set of requirements for MIDI devices aimed at ensuring consistent playback performance on all instruments bearing the GM logo. Some of the requirements include 24-voice polyphony, a standardized group (and location) of 128 sounds, that the synthesizer be 16-part multitimbral, and provides for a standard pitch encoding. Some manufacturers have proposed supersets to GM, e.g., Roland’s GS and Yamaha’s XG.

MIDI : Musical Instrument Digital Interface. MIDI is a specification for the types of control signals that can be sent from one electronic music device to another. MIDI is a serial protocol, with a word length of 30 bits and a transmission speed of 32 kbps. MIDI messages are either channel messages or system messages, the first of which describes the actual musical content of the sound, and all other synthesizer actions affecting that sound are controlled by the latter.

MIDI analyzer : A device that gives a visual display of MIDI activity when inserted between two pieces of MIDI equipment.

MIDI Bank Change : A type of MIDI controller message which is used to select alternate banks of MIDI patches where access to more than 128 patches is required.

MIDI choke : See MIDI delay.

MIDI Clock : A timing reference signal sent over a MIDI cable a the rate of 24ppq; a System Real-Time message used to communicate timing information among instruments in a MIDI system. Also known as MIDI Sync. See also MTC.

MIDI Controllers : (1) Devices which generate MIDI messages and which typically resemble musical instruments such as keyboards, guitars, drums, etc. Although originally conceived with a keyboard paradigm, MIDI controllers are now available as guitars, wind valves, drum kits, xylophone, piano, accordion, the violin family, as well as keyboards of all types. (2) MIDI Controller messages are a type of Channel Voice message designed for adjusting individual controls, such as pan position or channel volume, on equipment in the MIDI network. While not a part of the MIDI specification, certain conventions exist. The table below gives some of the more common controller numbers. See also controller change, continuous controllers, switched controllers. Controller messages can be switched, i.e., their value is either On or Off, or they can be continuous. Controller messages 0-31 take one additional data byte and can therefore carry values in the range 0-127. However, these can be paired with controllers 32-63 to provide two bytes of resolution, e.g., Controller 4 is paired with Controller 36). When this is done, the controller in the range 0-31 takes the MSB and its pair in the range 32-63 takes the LSB, for a range of 16,384 possible values. Most continuous controllers carry values ranging upward from 0, although physical controllers that center around zero (such as balance, pan, and pitch-bend) may be implemented so that their associated controller message carries values centered on the midpoint.

MIDI Delay : (1) A facility provided on some sequencers to allow a track to be fractionally delayed or advanced relative to others. Particularly useful for synthesizer voices which speak late, or to give a part a sense of urgency by being played very slightly ahead of the beat. Also called MIDI offset. (2) Noticeable delay in the transmission caused by MIDI Choke. This usually happens when too many MIDI devices try to send bulk dumps or unthinned continuous controller data over the same MIDI port.

MIDI Echo : A feature that routes MIDI messages appearing at a device’s MIDI In-port through its processor, unaltered, to the MIDI Out port. This allows control of a MIDI sound module simultaneously from a sequencer and a keyboard. MIDI Echo differs from MIDI Thru in that there is a direct, hard-wired connection between the MIDI In and Thru jacks, so the datastream doesn’t pass through the device’s processor.

MIDI filter : See filter.

MIDI interface/adapter : A device that converts data from a MIDI device to a format that a computer can recognize.

MIDI loop : A (mistakenly) hard-wired loop. See note-doubling.

MIDI Machine Control (MMC) : A protocol for using MIDI commands, usually from a sequencer, to control the transport functions (stop/play/record/locate/rewind/fast forward) of a tape recorder or other mechanical device. MMC is intended to link MIDI equipment with more traditional equipment such as audio and video tape machines and multimedia computer devices.

MIDI Mapper : An applet that automatically maps channel, program change, and note number data. For example, a map could cause all notes coming in on MIDI channel 3 to go out on MIDI channel 7.

MIDI Merge : The process of combining MIDI messages transmitted from two or more MIDI devices into one coherent MIDI data stream so that the messages appear to have been generated by only one device. This is not just connecting MIDI cables as MIDI messages are structured and this structure needs to be preserved. For example, if two Note On messages arrive simultaneously at the two inputs, the merge device will have to store one of them in a buffer until the first is sent. Because MIDI messages are variable in length, and because real-time massages have to take a priority, the merge device must be able to identify and distinguish between different data types. This generally requires a separate microprocessor, making a MIDI merge unit more expensive than a MIDI Thru device.

MIDI message : A full instruction consisting of at least one status byte and frequently with one or more data bytes, which causes a MIDI device to perform one of the functions defined in the MIDI specification. See also entries for each message type.

MIDI module : A device for generating sound which does not have an integral keyboard.

MIDI network : A collection of MIDI devices connected together in such a way that MIDI messages can pass between them. The most common network is a daisy chain (each device connected to the previous device, i.e., in a linear arrangement) or in a star topology, where each device is connected to a central point, such as a multi-port MIDI interface.

MIDI Mode : Also called channel mode or reception mode. A setting that determines how a particular MIDI device or instrument reacts to transmitted voice and channel data. Four modes are created by different combinations of the messages Omni On/Off (defining the ability to react to data on all MIDI channels) and Poly/Mono (playing notes polyphonically or monophonically).

MIDI Offset : See MIDI Delay.

MIDI Out/Thru : A MIDI output port that can be configured either to transmit MIDI messages generated within the unit (Out) or to retransmit messages received at the MIDI In (Thru). See MIDI echo.

MIDI patchbay : Essentially a patchbay for MIDI signals. Passive patchbays simply present MIDI In and MIDI Out sockets conveniently on a front panel to facilitate patching via patchcords. Active patchbays will generally have MIDI sockets on the rear panel, switches and displays on the front panel, and will also have a memory which allows commonly used patches to be stored. These, in turn, may be triggered by specific MIDI Program Change messages sent to the unit. As all of this requires some processing power, an active patchbay will often perform other functions such as MIDI Merge or MIDI mapping.

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