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Entries found for search: converter

analog-to-digital converter : Commonly abbreviated A/D converter or just A/D. A device that changes the continuous fluctuations in voltage from an analog device (such as a microphone) into digital information that can be stored or processed in a sampler, DSP, or digital recording device.

companding converter : An A/D-D/A pair which uses a non-linear scale, i.e., one that has larger steps towards peak amplitude and smaller steps towards minimum amplitude. This scale increases the ability of the converter to resolve small changes in low amplitude signals, reducing distortion, but with the penalty of increased noise. The overall effect is that of a compressed analog input signal and a resulting expanded digital output. See compander.

pitch-to-MIDI-converter : This translates a monophonic musical line, such as singing or a reed instrument, into a stream of MIDI data.

variable-rate converter : A new type of digital recording, marketed by Kinetix, which attempts to provide very high resolution sound without resorting to a static increase in bit depth and sampling rate. Typical linear systems divide audio signals into equal quantums of amplitude and equal quantums of time, producing serially correlated sampling errors, or, errors which are necessarily related to one another and are, therefore, not only not random, and therefore not mutually cancelling, but potentially mutually reinforcing at specific bands within the audio frequency, making them more noticeable. Briefly, a variable-rate converter wobbles at random between 44.1kHz and 48kHz to distribute the sampling errors over a wide frequency range, with the general result that they are inaudible. The Kinetix converter also randomizes the quantization steps so that each successive sample is quantized differently. This renders quantization distortion is redistributed as (Gaussian) noise where it is shifted into the 15-18kHz range on output where it is unlikely to be audible. Variable-rate converters provide low bit-rates, do not require dither or compression, produce less background noise and distortion, with increased the audibility of low-level signals and enhanced stereo imaging. The downside is that the variable clock frequency causes problems for interfacing to other digital systems which is why the current Kinetix product includes its own recorder.

digital-to-analog converter : Commonly abbreviated D/A, D/A converter or DAC. A device that changes the sample words put out by a digital audio device into analog fluctuations in voltage that can be sent to a mixer, amplifier, or speaker. All digital synthesizers, samplers, and effects devices have DACs at their outputs to create audio signals, as the transducers in loudspeakers are inherently analog devices.

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