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Entries found for search: d

Avid : A brand of nonlinear video editing system, which, while not being exactly an industry standard, is the most commonly used digital video editing system.

audio : Literally, "I hear" in Latin. The term pertains to any signal, sound, waveform, etc., that can be heard, as opposed to subsonic or ultrasonic sound, radio-frequency signals or video signals.

audio coding mode : A parameter in Dolby Digital surround-sound format which refers to the number of channels and their location in for form F/R, where F is the number of front channels and R is the number of rear channels. For example, 5-channel surround is called 3/2 mode, stereo is 2/0, and mono is designated 1/0.

audio enhancer : Any dynamic signal processing device that in some sense improves a dull or lifeless sound. It can be a simple as EQ or a complex DSP algorithm. Examples of exciters are the Aphex Aural Exciter, BBE Sonic Maximizer, or SPL Vitalizer. Enhancers combine dynamic equalization with either harmonic synthesis or phase manipulation.

audio frequency : See AF.

audio silence : A type of diagnostic recording made with the recording set-up as planned, but with all faders down. Used to make a reference measurement of the noise floor and/or a tape of biased noise.

audio taper : A type of potentiometer designed for use as a volume control in audio equipment where the resistance varies in a logarithmic, rather than a linear, fashion with rotation of the knob. This gives a better correlation between control rotation and the subjective loudness of the signal.

audio-to-MIDI : Software or hardware that takes a monophonic instrumental or vocal line, analyzes the pitches, amplitude, and timbre, and converts the line to MIDI notes, complete with pitch-bend, MIDI velocity and volume, and possibly additional controller data.

AudioX : An open MIDI driver specification/standard being promoted by Cakewalk™.

auditory masking : See frequency masking, masking.

assemble editing : Editing of an audio or video program by making a master copy of the various takes, rather than physically splicing pieces of tape together. Virtually all digital editing is done this way. The opposite of insert editing.

antinode : A place of minimum sound pressure level in a standing wave, as opposed to a node, which is a maximum level.

anode : The anode in any electronic component, such as a silicon diode or a vacuum tube, is the electrode normally connected to the positive voltage.

andante : At a "walking" speed: 76-94 bpm. Andantino can mean either a little faster or a little slower than andante, although it more commonly denotes a little faster.

analog-to-digital converter : Commonly abbreviated A/D converter or just A/D. A device that changes the continuous fluctuations in voltage from an analog device (such as a microphone) into digital information that can be stored or processed in a sampler, DSP, or digital recording device.

analog recording : Any method of recording in which the recorded waveform is a continuous representation of the original signal, e.g., conventional magnetic tape recording.

Amplitude Modulation (AM) : The instantaneous amplitude modulation of one signal by another. This results in the formation of sidebands which contain the same information as the original signals, but translated upwards and downwards in frequency. In AM radio transmission, the audio signal is combined with a very high-frequency sine wave, called a carrier, in such a way that the amplitude of the carrier is varied in exact response to the amplitude and frequency of the signal. This is called the amplitude modulation of the carrier. The modulated carrier is transmitted at high power where it is received by radio sets that are tuned to the carrier frequency. The modulated carrier is then demodulated by a process called detection, recovering the original signal. In radio, a circuit that does amplitude modulation is also called a heterodyne.

amplitude errors : See frequency response errors, jitter.

amplitude : The relative strength (amount) of a signal, without regard to its frequency content. Amplitude is measured by determining the amount of fluctuation in air pressure (of a sound), voltage (of an electrical signal), or numerical data (in a digital application). When the signal is in the audio range, amplitude is perceived as loudness. Amplitude is the measurement of how much energy the sound has, i.e., the total change in air pressure during a single cycle of the sound wave. Amplitude, or sound pressure, is measured in a scale called decibels (dB). An increase of 3dB is equal to a doubling of a soundís pressure. Amplitude can be expressed as either a negative or positive number, depending on the signals being compared. See also magnitude, SPL.

ambient sound : Sounds such as reverberation, room tone, walla and atmospherics that form a background to the main sound, usually in the context of a film soundtrack of a motion picture, taking place at any given moment. The lack of ambient sound is noticeable because the human hearing system expects it. See also ambient noise.

alignment recording : See biased noise.

after-fader listen : (AFL) On many recording and mixing consoles, there is an option labeled AFL, or after-fader listen. This allows the listener to hear the audio after the channel fader has effected the audio signal. The AFL is also known as post-fader listen. The oposite of AFL is pre-fader listen.

ADT : Auto Double Tracking. An effect produced by taking a track and copying the material onto another track, delayed by a few ms, then mixing it with the original. Like chorusing, but with a shorter delay. See also double-tracking.

ADSR : Attack/Decay/Sustain/Release, the four segments of a common type of sound synthesizer envelope. The controls for these four parameters determine the duration (or in the case of sustain, the height) of the segments of the envelope. Two additional parameters, D (Delay Time) and H (Hold Time) are available on some synthesizers. See envelope, envelope generator.

ADR : Automatic Dialogue Replacement. Recording of dialog for a scene after it has been shot, usually to replace location sound that is unusable because of street noise, camera noise, etc. The workprint and sync magnetic film transfer for the scene are spliced into continuous loops and projected in a sound studio so that the actors can recreate the phrasing and feeling they had on the set. New takes are recorded on a separate mag film loop and/or other synchronous tape until an acceptable performance is obtained. Also see virgin looping, looping, and lip sync.

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