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Entries found for search: effect

Barkhausen effect : The tendency of the magnetic elements or domains on a magnetic medium to influence one another and to become magnetized in one direction or another as a group rather than individually. This means that a magnetic medium, such as recording tape, has a graininess in its magnetic makeup which is what causes most background noise, or tape hiss. Modulation noise, which is only present in conjunction with a recorded signal, is also caused by the Barkhausen effect, and is sometimes called Barkhausen noise.

boundary effect : A sound reflection effect due to room modes ( standing waves) which accumulates at walls. sound wave reflections appear to make the localized sound level increase as all of the room modes terminate at the boundary (wall). Essentially as the wavefront approaches the wall, the amounts of molecular motion become smaller and smaller while the pressure differences become greater and greater as the wall resists the motion of the air molecules, the wall becoming a pressure node. The rigidity of the wall surface determines how much the pressure rises, i.e., how much of the pressure is reflected versus how much is absorbed. This occurs on a mode-by-mode basis at each resonant frequency. At very low frequencies, nothing large is rigid. However, at higher frequencies, boundary effect is more pronounced, e.g., frequencies above 100 Hz in a room with typical walls. A related effect is often observed at a control room window, where the window itself will resonate at one or more resonant frequencies so that the window passes the resonant frequencies through to the (recording) space on the other side, somewhat reducing the boundary effect within the control room, but not providing sound isolation from the adjacent space(s). This last effect is worse for lower frequencies as higher frequencies tend to be absorbed by the glass in the window. Also called the pressure zone effect. See absorption coefficient, bass build-up, bass trap.

cocktail party effect : The phenomenon of human aural discrimination among sounds of equal loudness, e.g., the ability to hear one conversation out of many at a party. Related to auditory masking.

cut effects : Sound effects that are taken from a sound library and edited, usually as opposed to recorded Foley effects. See pull, M&E.

effect send level : The amount of effect to be added, such as reverb, chorusing, or other enhancements, to each channel.

effects : Abbreviated FX. Any form of audio signal processing or a device to produce: reverb, delay, chorusing, echo, flanging, and phasing, rotary (Leslie) speaker simulation, distortion, and tremolo, etc. See processor.

effects send bus : The mixing bus in a recording console used to mix the signal to be sent to the various effects devices. Also called the effects send bus.

effects control : Two classes of Controller Change messages which are used to introduce and adjust some kind of effect such as reverb.

effects control 1 & 2 : Controller Change messages which are intended to be assignable to parameters (other than depth) which appear in a synthesizer or effects unit and which control some aspect of an effect such as reverb time or pitch-shift. They operate in conjunction with Effects Depth messages; the two message types taken together are called Effects Control.

effects depth : (1) A parameter on a synthesizer, effects unit, etc. which can be adjusted by the user to alter the mount of a particular effect, such as reverb, delay, or chorus. (2) Effects Depth controllers. Controller Change messages which are used to implement the function described in Effects Depth. These were initially assigned to specific effects, but are now generalized and operate in conjunction with Effects Controls 1 & 2 messages; the two message types taken together are called Effects Control.

effects loop : A mixing console circuit that is used to add an effect to a signal or a group of signals. When the effect unit is plugged into the effects send bus circuit (via the effects send and effects return jacks), it literally functions as a loop, splitting the signal off from the mixer and sending it to the effect, then returning it to the mixer, where it is combined with the original signal.

effects master : See effects send.

effects return : An input on a mixing console that receives the wet signal from the effects devices. The effects return inputs usually have volume controls (faders) to control the intensity of the particular effect in use.

effects send : An output from a mixering console that is connected to the input of an effects device. The effects send outputs usually have volume controls to set the effect send level, and the overall level of all the effects send outputs may be controlled by an effects master control operating from the effects bus. Effects sends (usually referred to in this case as aux sends) are typically used to feed effects processors such as reverbs, or are used to feed monitor systems, either speakers on stage or headphones in the studio. Whereas the main outputs of a mixer have a mix of everything that has a main fader turned up, the effects sends, with their own mix controls, have an independent mix. Effects sends are also used to feed the house mix to the PA system, when they are usually called post-fader sends. Also called an post-fader send, or aux (auxiliary) send. See insert send.

effects track : (1) An edited track of magnetic film containing sounds other than dialog or music. There can be many effects prepared for a film mix. (2) In videotape productions whose sound is assembled on a multitrack tape, the track or tracks on which sound effects are recorded. (3) In the 35mm three-track mix of a motion picture, the recorded track that contains sounds mixed from all the effects tracks. See film soundtrack.

Fletcher-Munson effect : Fletcher and Munson measured the sensitivity of human hearing at various volumes and frequencies with the finding that humans hear best in the range of 3kHz-4kHz; the sensitivity falls off rapidly at lower frequencies and somewhat more slowly at higher frequencies. In other words, very soft sounds must be more powerful at frequencies lower and higher than 3kHz-4kHz in order to be heard. The loudness control on music reproduction systems was designed to compensate for the Fletcher-Munson effect. See equal loudness curves.

Haas effect : The Haas Effect refers to the brainís ability to integrate incident sound and early reflections into a single sound. Those early arrivals which occur within the first 5-35ms that are not more than about 10dB louder than the direct sound will be combined and added to the first arrival and localized to its source. If the delayed sound is more than 10dB louder or the delay is greater than 35ms, the listener will perceive distinct echoes.A psychoacoustic phenomenon where an instrument or soundís apparent localization will shift in the direction of the earliest signal. This is a type of sensory inhibition which causes the response to the direct sound source to inhibit response to the reflections. Haas further noted the Precedence Effect: the position of a perceived sonic image created by two sound sources depends on both the arrival times and the relative levels. If two sound sources arrive at the same time and at the same level, human aural perception will image the sound toward the centerpoint between the two sounds. If two sounds are equally loud, the image will shift toward the earliest-arriving signal. Further, if one source is louder, the image can be moved back to the center between the two sources by adding delay, provided that the delay time is less than 25ms. Beyond 25-30ms, the ear begins to hear the delayed sound as a discrete echo and the image shift effect no longer works. This phenomenon is usually used to simulate a stereo image in a monophonic recording where the original signal is panned hard left and a copy is delayed (1-50ms delay) and panned hard right. The Precedence Haas Eeffect may be mitigated by slightly attenuating the volume of the dry sound.

multieffects processor : An effects processor which is capable of producing several types of effects at once.

munchkin effect : The effect produced by pitch-shifting a sample sufficiently to produce distortion in the shifted tones.

proximity effect : A boost in the low-frequency response of a directional microphone that occurs when the sound source is relatively close to the microphone. The phenomenon begins when the source is about two feet away from the mic capsule and becomes more noticeable as the subject gets closer to the mic. A singer can use the proximity effect as a means of adding fullness to a voice; however, the effect can also emphasize low-frequency noises such as breath sounds and plosives popping consonants, such as "p" and "b" sounds. See pop filter.

pressure zone effect : See boundary effect.

Precedence Effect : See Haas Effect.

on-board effects processor : This can be used in a synthesizer to add reverb, chorusing, or other effects. On most synthesizers, it is possible to set the effect send level separately for each of the multitimbral parts. As opposed to outboard.

Doppler effect : The apparent change in the pitch of a sound when the source of the sound is moving with respect to the listener. Also called Doppler distortion.

dynamic effect : (1) An effect which alters the loudness characteristics of a signal without introducing any timbre changes. The most common dynamic effects are compression and limiting. (2) Some companies use the term dynamic effects to refer to effects devices whose processing parameters can be controlled in real-time via MIDI.

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