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Entries found for search: loudness

equal loudness curves : Also known as Fletcher-Munson curves or phon lines. Equal loudness curves are the inverse of frequency response curves and reflect the phenomenon that humans do not hear all frequencies as having equal loudness. In other words, human hearing is not liner in frequency. This is particularly problematic in recording as a mixed master will be perceived differently depending on the playback level. Specifically, there is a marked drop-off in aural sensitivity at low frequencies. At the opposite extreme, humans have high sensitivity to sounds in the 1kHz-8kHz range, with sound again dropping away above 12kHz. Also called equal loudness contours. In the graph below, note that at 60dB SPL, a 1kHz tone is perceived as of equal loudness as a 20Hz tone at over 100dB SPL. At low levels, these differences are accentuated: the same 1kHz tone at 10dB SPL requires 80dB SPL at 20Hz.

loudness : Loudness is a subjective attribute of sound and cannot be quantified. If a large group of listeners is asked to adjust the strength of two signals so that one is twice as loud as the other, the average power difference will be about 10dB, and this will be almost independent of the absolute levels of the two sounds. The loudness of a sound, especially a complex sound containing many frequencies, has no simple relation to its SPL.

loudness control : An addition to some amplifiers or preamplifiers which attempt to correct for the reduced aural sensitivity to low-frequency, low-level sounds. The loudness control is simply a bass-boost circuit which has a relatively greater effect as the volume is turned down so that the perceived loudness of each frequency is the same as the loudness of a 1kHz tone.



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