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Entries found for search: ne

autopanner : A device for processing a signal so that it can be made to appear at various positions in a stereo image via a remote control or MIDI commands.

anechoic : Without echo. Said of an acoustic which is free-field, and specifically of a room which is designed to produce no reverberation or other echo effects. This is achieved by giving the walls very irregular surfaces of considerable and varying depths so that, in theory, all sound waves which strike them are completely absorbed and not reflected. Anechoic chambers are used to test audio equipment and for other types of acoustic and electromagneticelectro-magnetic research.

all-pass network : An all-pass network, also called an all-pass filter, is an electrical circuit with a uniform amplitude response versus frequency response, but with a phase-shift which does not vary in a linear relationship with frequency. (A pure time-delay device such as a digital delay line will have a phase-shift which is directly proportional to frequency, i.e., its phase-shift increases at a constant rate with frequency.) Complex filters often have significant phase distortion because they are not phase linear, and an all-pass network can be designed to correct phase anomalies without affecting the amplitude response.

airline version : A remixed and possibly re-edited version of a film that has any objectionable material removed. The airline film standard is more stringent even than those of the broadcast networks, and is often used as a benchmark for TV viewing.

Academy centerline : See optical track.

5.1-channel format &searchtxt A digital, discrete six channel mix of Left/Center/Right/Left surrond/Right Surround/ Subwoofer mix. 5.1 is not a specific surround format tied to any particular company or codec. However, all the hardware is the same for any 5.1-based system except for the codec. It is planned that CDs, laserdiscs, and DVDs will have an ID flag to let the decoder know which codec was used, enabling decoders to recognize all incoming bitstreams and automatically switch modes and process the incoming signal appropriately. It is a listening platform and hardware concept for a surround loudspeaker system. See DTS, Dolby Digital, HDTV, CDS, LFE.

backline : On-stage instrument amplification.

balanced line : Audio lines in which the signal current is not carried by the cable shield of a shielded cable. This requires two conductors for the signal, enclosed in a shield, with neither conductor connected to the shield. The circuit utilizes two identical conductors operated so that the voltages on each of them are equal in magnitude, but opposite in polarity with respect to ground. Compare with unbalanced line. See common-mode..

barney : See blimp.

basic channel : In a MIDI device, the channel on which the device receives fundamental messages governing its operation, e.g., Reception Mode changes. In Mono Mode, the basic channel is the lowest-numbered channel.

B-Channel : See ISDN.

bi-directional microphone : A figure-eight microphone.

boundary microphone : A boundary microphone uses a small condenser microphone capsule mounted very near a sound reflecting plate, or boundary, so there is no delay in the reflected sound. Direct and reflected sounds add in-phase over the audible range of frequencies , resulting in a flat response, free of phase cancellations, excellent clarity and reach, and the same tone quality anywhere around the microphone. Boundary microphones have a directional response that is either half- omni, half- cardioid or half- supercardioid. An example of a boundary microphone is a PZM (pressure zone microphone).

brightness : The amount of high-frequency signal present in a sound, which tends to make the sound appear closer. The opposite of darkness.

Calrec Soundfield microphone : See Soundfield microphone.

canned : Slang for pre-recorded, as opposed to live music or visuals.

Cannon connector : See XLR.

cardioid microphone : A directional microphone with an acceptance angle that is most sensitive to sounds coming from the front and sides, while rejecting sounds coming from the rear. Called cardioid because the polar pattern of the microphone is roughly heart-shaped. All directional mics have a proximity effect, whereby sound sources close to the mic will have an exaggerated low-frequency response. Supercardioids and hypercardioids are cardioids, but with a trade-off in the rear lobe. When using supercardioids and hypercardioids as sound reinforcement mics, it is important to note that the maximum rejection is not directly behind the mic as it is with a cardioid, but is off to the side between 110¢ª-126¢ª. However, a pair of hypercardioid microphones used as a stereo X-Y pair yields a very clean cardioid response pattern. See pressure gradient.

channel : An independently processed or recorded signal. (1) An electrical signal path. In analog audio (such as a mixer), each channel consists of separate wired components. In the digital domain, channels may share wiring, kept separate through logical operations. (2) A system for independently addressing up to sixteen separate MIDI devices over a single MIDI cable. MIDI provides definitions for 16 channels which transmit not audio signals, but digital control signals for triggering synthesizers and other devices. MIDI data are associated with a particular channel by virtue of a Channel ID Number that is interwoven with other MIDI data being recorded. A track holds data that (depending on the sequencer) may or may not be restricted to one MIDI channel. MIDI’s 16-channel limitation has been overcome by employing multiple independent MIDI ports that each route sixteen channels, offering the possibility of hundreds of channels. (3) The left or right signals of a stereo audio system, or the left, right, center, surround and/or subwoofer signals of a multichannel system, such as LCRS or 5.1. (4) In film, A complete, self-sufficient recording setup. A production channel would include a recorder, mixer, microphones, headsets, etc. A transfer channel would include a 1/4" tape deck, a 35mm mag recorder, a resolver, and a monitoring system.

channel assignment matrix : In a recording console, the group of buttons or switches by which the signal from any input channel can be assigned to one or more busses, and thereby be sent to one or more tracks of the multitrack recorder.

channel bit rate : The actual bits being read from a digital medium are greater than the number strictly required to encode the audio signal. This is because of ECC and synchronization bits, etc. For example, with a CD, the audio bit rate is 1.41Mbps, but the channel bit rate is actually three times as high, 4.32Mbps.

channel insert : An insertion point in a mixer channel which opens up the signal path and allows an outboard device to be inserted in-line. The output point (the place where the signal is routed to the outboard device) is called the channel insert send, and the place where the effected comes back into the mixer is called the channel insert return. The actual point at which the channel signal path is broken with the insert connection is not standard among all consoles. Some are between the preamp and equalizer sections, some after the equalizer, but before the fader, and some are post-fader. Some are switchable with an internal jumper or other modification. If, for example, the channel insert send is post-fader, the fader setting will affect the action of a compressor that is inserted into the channel’s signal path. On the other hand, a post-fader insert is good when it is desirable to send a single channel’s signal direct to a tape track, making the fader into a convenient record-level control. See normalled connection.

channel message : A class of MIDI messages which only affect devices on a MIDI network set to a particular channel, i.e., all non-system messages. Channel messages may be of either Channel Mode or Channel Voice type. See MIDI.

channel mode : See MIDI mode.

channel path : The record section of the signal chain in a mixer. See also monitor path.

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