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Entries found for search: pan

autopanner : A device for processing a signal so that it can be made to appear at various positions in a stereo image via a remote control or MIDI commands.

compander : Short for compressor/expander. A compander is a device for noise reduction in audio devices such as tape recorders. The compander will reduce the dynamic range of the signal before sending it to be recorded. The compression makes the softer passages louder so the dynamic range recorded on the tape is less than it would be if it were not compressed. Then, on playback of the tape, the signal is expanded; that is, the softer passages, which are too loud on the tape, are reduced in volume to match the original signal, restoring its dynamics. In the expansion, which is similar to a fast-acting AVC, the noise introduced by the tape recording process is effectively reduced because the music, when loud, masks the noise, and during the soft passages, the volume is turned down, making the noise comparatively softer. Digital companding allows a device to achieve greater apparent dynamic range with a lower bit depth. See dbxSeedBx, Dolby noise reduction.

companding converter : An A/D-D/A pair which uses a non-linear scale, i.e., one that has larger steps towards peak amplitude and smaller steps towards minimum amplitude. This scale increases the ability of the converter to resolve small changes in low amplitude signals, reducing distortion, but with the penalty of increased noise. The overall effect is that of a compressed analog input signal and a resulting expanded digital output. See compander.

control panel : A file which becomes a part of the Macís system software, giving the user either control over or adding functionality to various aspects of the operating system, peripherals, or applications. See also extension.

expander : (1) A signal processing device which is the inverse of a compressor, providing the gradual attenuation of signals that fall below a user-defined threshold. This process, known as expansion, reduces background noise and at the same time increases the dynamic range of the input signal. (2) A synth, with out a keyboard or other master controller, often rack-mounted. Also called a tone module.

expansion : See expander(1).

expansion ratio : In an expander that is working below its threshold, the ratio given by the number of dBofdB change in input over the number of dBsofdBs change in output. Typical ratios are in the range 1:2 or even 1:20. Expansion ratio is the opposite and complement of compression ratio.

peak expansion : The adjustment of an expanderís threshold so that most program material passes through unaffected, but peaks or transients are heavily expanded. Used to restore peaks to program material that has been overly compressed.

panpot : Short for panoramic potentiometer. An audio mixer control which is used for positioning the channelís signal somewhere between the right and left speakers. See pan.

panic button : A hardware or software feature that simultaneously sends All Notes Off and Reset All Controllers commands to a MIDI system. Because some instruments donít respond to All Notes Off commands, some panic buttons are designed to send Note Off messages (0-127) on all channels as well.

PAN : A dedicated on-line internet service provider for the music industry.

pancake : A 10 1/2" reel of recording tape without the reel flanges. Recording studios often buy tape in this form and spool it onto smaller reels as it is used.

pan : Short for panorama. (1) (noun) Refers to the left-right placement of a sound. (2) (verb) Moving a sound from stereo-center to one side or the other, either on a mixer or on a synthesizer, sequencer, etc. Usually this is not completely effective as panning alters only the relative amplitude of the sound left to right, and not the crucial aspect of delay. See Haas effect. (3) One of the defined MIDI Controller Change messages assigned to the parameter in a synthesizer which determines the stereo image of the sound, effectively making that controller a panpot.

volume expander : A device for increasing the dynamic range and reducing the apparent noise of a signal. The second half of a compander. A volume expander decreases the system gain as the signal level decreases, making soft signals softer still. This results in an apparent noise decrease because the relative level between the softest and loudest sounds is greater. If the noise level is already low enough that the signal will mask it in the loud passages, the expansion will put the low end of the dynamic range at a point where the ear has reduced sensitivity, making the noise less audible.

downward expander : See noise reduction.

Companding Noise Reduction Companding noise reduction works by first sending the source matrial through a compressor, thus compressing the source material's dynamic range (in this case by a factor of 2) before being recorded to a medium known for noise such as magnetic recording tape. The compressed audio becomes contaminated with noise, but is passed through an expander during playback, and the noise from the recording medium is masked by expansion of the dynamics. This results in a reduction of perceived noise. See also dbxô noise reduction.

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