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Entries found for search: scale

scale : Music is made up of sounds pitched at relative intervals. The spacing of these intervals makes a scale. There are several principal modes each of which can be found by starting on the notes A-G and playing up the white notes (only) on a piano to the corresponding note an octave higher. They are Aeolian (A-A), Locrian (B-B, rare), Ionian (C-C), Dorian (D-D), Phrygian (E-E), Lydian (F-F), and Mixolydian (G-G). These can be transposed to start on different pitches as the interval pattern between notes is the essential feature.

The modern major and minor scales correspond to the Ionian and Aeolian modes, respectively, and form the basis of most western music: (F=full-step, H=half-step, T=three half-steps)

Within a scale, there is an ascending or descending series of notes that subdivide an octave into various and usually unequal pitch steps. The scales were collectively known as modes, and before about 1600 all were in common use. Between about 1600-1900 western music was centered on just two of the above scale patterns, the major and minor scales, which form the basis of diatonic harmony. Major and minor scales can begin on any note: those starting on C comprise the following notes:

scale distortion : Because the human ear has a sensitivity which varies with frequency and with loudness level, a musical ensemble must be reproduced at the same loudness as the listener would experience at the actual event if frequency distortion is not to occur. This happens because of the apparent amplitudes of the different frequencies will differ, with accentuation of the extreme high and low frequencies. Also called volume distortion. See equal loudness curves.

scale construction : See tonic and whole-step. For example, the relative minor of a major scale starts at either a sixth up or a third down on the major scale. To find the third, fourth, fifth, etc. of a tonic, count up that number of scale steps. For example, to find the sixth of a tonic, the major sixth would be nine half-steps above the tonic; the minor is diminished, i.e., it is eight half-steps above the tonic. The fifth is seven half-steps above the tonic or below it. A fourth is five half-steps above or below the tonic. The seventh is ten half-steps (minor) or eleven half-steps (major) above or below the tonic.

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