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Entries found for search: sound

ambient sound : Sounds such as reverberation, room tone, walla and atmospherics that form a background to the main sound, usually in the context of a film soundtrack of a motion picture, taking place at any given moment. The lack of ambient sound is noticeable because the human hearing system expects it. See also ambient noise.

Academy curve/Academy sound : The name of the standard mono optical track that has exsisted since the beginning of sound on film. Standards were codified in 1938, although the standard has changed somewhat through the years. The standard specifies a flat response throughout the range of 100Hz-1.6 kHz and is down 7dB at 40 Hz, 10dB at 5 kHz, and 18 dB at 8 kHz. Also called an N-Curve. See also X-Curve."

Calrec Soundfield microphone : See Soundfield microphone.

Cinema Digital Sound (CDS) : A new system of digitally recording motion picture sound format introduced by the Optical Radiation Corporation, a division of Kodak, in 1990, for the film "Dick Tracy" for digital sound on 35mm or 70mm film formats via a laser beam, which reportedly combines the dynamic and frequency ranges and low distortion of the CD on six discrete channels. Five channels encompass the full audio bandwidth and the sixth is designated a subwoofer channel, containing only the lowest frequencies. The CDS-encoded film is capable of being shown with conventional stereo optical sound, but requires a special sound system to reproduce the six channels digitally. First used in 1990, this format lasted only two years and is now obsolete. See AC-3, 5.1.

film soundtrack : The audio component, including DME, of a film composition. There is usually a requirement for sound to be synchronized to the video image. This has been achieved by a variety of means, including the recording of sound on optical tracks etched into the film emulsion alongside the frames, fixing magnetic tracks on the film surface, synchronizing the film with a separate tape machine by means of mechanical sprockets, and electronic sync using systems such as SMPTE. See also Dolby Stereo, LC Concept, SR.D, pilot tone, layback recorder, source track.

hi-fi video sound : The result of encoding the stereo soundtracks input to hi-fi type VHS or Beta format videotape recorders on an frequency modulated carrier wave. This information is recorded along with picture data via the video record heads. Reproduction of hi-fi sound approaches digital quality audio.

incident sound : The first (audio) source event to reach the sensor. Also called the incident wave, direct wave, primary wave, first arrival. See also reverberation.

location sound : Sound recorded and/or mixed on location during the film or video shoot; also known as production sound, live sound, location recording, and live recording.

Multichannel TV Sound (MTS) : A standard for transmitting stereo audio signals to home television sets.

soundtrack : See film soundtrack.

sound synthesis : The process of electronically creating a sound with an oscillator. Types of sound synthesis include additive synthesis, subtractive synthesis, sample (playback) synthesis, FM synthesis, and physical modeling synthesis, VPM.

sound system equalization : The equalization of a sound reinforcement system, either to increase its amount of gain before feedback, or to make its overall frequency response more linear nearly flat.

sound stripe : A narrow strip of magnetic material applied to one edge of motion picture film for recording of the film sound track, in the manner of a tape recorder. 70mm release prints of motion pictures exclusively use magnetic soundtrack, as do some 35mm prints. Compare with SVA. See stripe.

sound stage : A theatrical stage for filming that is specially treated for the simultaneous recording of dialogue and/or music. A sound stage must have a low level of NC curve and a low reverberation time, and the cameras and other equipment used must be specially designed for quiet operation. This is not the same as a re-recording stage.

Sound Resource Format : A Macintosh file format, usually abbreviated SND, which tends to be used for small, short sound effects, such as beeps and clicks. They were originally used for system sounds. AIFF and QuickTime formats are more commonly used to record narration or music, especially on larger files.

sound reinforcement : The general term for a sound system designed to amplify the voice and/or music to improve its intelligibility to an audience. A sound reinforcement system always consists of at least one microphone and associated preamps, control console, amplifiers and loudspeakers. Often abbreviated SR.

sound quality : See timbre.

sound reader : A magnetic playback head mounted either directly on a sync block, or on a freestanding metal base with alignment rollers. Used by film editors to check synchronization of all effects and music, they slowly hand-crank the workprint and various rolls of magnetic film through a sync block on the editing bench. Signal from the sound reader is amplified by a squawk box.

sound pressure level (SPL) : The loudness of an acoustic wave stated in dBindB that is proportional to the logarithm of its acoustic intensity. A sound wave progressing through air causes the instantaneous air pressure at any given point to vary above and below the barometric pressure in accordance with the waveform of the sound. This variation in pressure is used as a quantitative measure of the strength of the sound, and is called sound pressure. This is the quantity which a pressure microphone measures, and if it is expressed on a dBadB scale and referenced to a pressure of 20 µpascals, it is called the sound pressure level. The amplitude dynamic range of human hearing goes from 0dB, or 10 -16 watt/sq.cm., the upper threshold of human hearing to 130dB or 10-4 watt/sq.cm., the threshold of pain, a factor of 1013 in range.

Sound Manager : A part of the Mac operating system that handles audio functionality such as input, mixing, and playback. Currently the Sound Manager supports only mono or stereo recording and playback at 16-bit, 48kHz resolution. Most Mac audio cards do not use Sound Manager for this reason, achieving both increased bit-depth and sampling resolution. See also WAV/multi-WAV drivers.

sound module : See tone module.

sound-on-sound : The same as overdubbing.

sounding : The act of recording sound on a mag release print.

sound intensity : Defined as a measure of the net flow of acoustic energy in a sound field. The units are watts per square meter, and because the energy moves in a particular direction, sound intensity is a vector quantity, i.e., it has magnitude and direction. Sound intensity is not able to be measured directly, and it should not be confused with SPL which is what a sound level meter measures.

sound field : The area and/or pattern of air pressure disturbance caused by the compression and rarefaction of energy in the AF band.

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