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Now looking at definitions starting with letter "r"

reactance : The complex component of impedance.

read : The quality of a sound in the context of its placement within a film, theater, or other audio situation is described as how the sound "reads." See popcorn noise.

read mode : In console automation, the operational mode in which automation data concerning the fader level or other parameter for each channel is read back from data storage and used to reproduce those settings in real-time, actually controlling each parameter exactly as it was done on the recording pass.

ready : An operational mode of tape recorder electronics. For any tracks placed in ready mode, the record circuits are enabled. When the master record button is pushed and the tape begins moving, the ready tracks begin recording. The opposite of safe mode.

real-time : Occurring at the same time as other, usually human, activities. In real-time sequence recording, timing information is encoded along with the note data by analyzing the timing of the input. In real-time editing, changes in parameter settings can be heard immediately, without the need to play a new note or wait for computational processes to be completed. (1) The ability of a computer or other device to carry out a process without noticeable delay, such as real-time editing on a sequencer where changes are made to the music as it plays. The opposite of off-line(1). (2) In a sequencer, the ability to record MIDI messages as they are played on a keyboard or other controller, i.e., to behave like a tape recorder. This is generally the method preferred by musicians. The opposite of step-time. (3) Events which have to occur at particular times to ensure synchronization between devices such as a time code message, as opposed to those (non-real-time) events which can occur at any time. (4) See System-Exclusive.

Real-Time Analysis : See RTA.

real-time control : A non-preprogrammed control signal generated by the player via a controller such as a pitch-bend wheel, mod wheel, aftertouch (pressure) sensor, footpedals, etc. It is common to have one of these real-time controllers affectingcontrolling the depth (amount) of modulation signal being sent from some other (nonreal-time) source to the modulation destination. See continuous controller.

real-time dubbing : Duplicating a tape at its normal playing speed rather than at a higher speed, resulting in better quality than high-speed dubbing.

real-time input : MIDI input generated in real-time, such as during a performance or studio recording session. See real-time, real-time control.

Real-Time MTC Cueing : MIDI Messages similar to Set-Up which contain information such as cue points, punch-in/-out points, event start and stop points, and event names. Unlike conventional MTC Set-Up messages which include details of the absolute times in the future at which events should occur, Real Time MTC Cueing messages are of the Universal System-Exclusive Real-Time type and so are to be acted on when received.

RealAudio (.RA) : RealAudio files use a proprietary format designed specifically for playing audio-on-demand in real-time over the internet, introduced by Progressive Networks in 1995, consisting of a server application, and encoder, and a player which works within a Web browser. Normally, the RealAudio player delivers 16-bit sound, although an 8-bit option is available. Data rates range from 14.4 kBps (approximately the sound quality of a mono AM station) to dual ISDN Stereo at 16kHz, nearly CD-quality. See RTSP.

reassign : An output bus designed for internal re-routing and combining within a mixing console. See insert point.

recapitulation : In a musical structure, the final return to the theme from the main opening section, usually modified to occur in the home key.

reception mode : See MIDI mode.

reclock : To align bars and beats in a digital editor to music recorded without a tempo reference.

reconstruction filter : In a digital audio system, in order to recover the analog signal from the digital words, a D/A converter is used. The output of the converter is a stair-step waveform which contains a great deal of high-frequency artifacts called images. To reconstruct a smooth replica of the original signal, the stair-step is passed through a steep lowpass filter, also called an anti-imaging filter. It is similar, or even identical, to the anti-aliasing filter at the input of the A/D converter, but its purpose is very different. Also called an anti-imaging filter. See quantization, decimation, FIR, IIR.

record head : The head on a tape recorder that applies a varying magnetic force to the tape so t hat the audio signal will be recorded on the tape for later playback. A very high-frequency signal is mixed with the audio program before it reaches the record head. This bias signal helps to linearize the over-all frequency response of the tape itself, reducing distortion.

record-equalization : Also the same for playback-equalization. In tape recording, the internal and complementary alteration of the frequency response of input signals prior to recording and output signals after playback. By boosting highs prior to recording and reducing them after playback, some tape noise is eliminated. In addition, the equalization curve can compensate for nonlinear response of the specific type of recording tape in use. There are a number of standard record/playback curves. See also pre-emphasis, RIAA.

record-in/record-out : In SMPTE timecode synchronization for videotape post-production, the user-specified SMPTE timecodetime code addresses at which the synchronizer will automatically place the audio or video recorder in record mode (punch-in) and subsequently cancel the record mode (punch-out). See pre-roll, post-roll, mark-in/mark-out.

recordist : (1) The person who operates the tape recording deviceer during a recording session, or in film, the person who is in charge of aligning and loading the recorders and playback dubbers. (2) The person who records sound during film shooting (Europe). In the U.S., this person is called the production mixer.

rectifier : A device for converting AC to DC. Rectification is done through a network of diodes in a power supply to convert power line voltage to DC to power active devices. Rectification is also used to recover the signal in an amplitude modulated wave form.

Red Book : Published by Philips and Sony to set out the complete standard for audio CDs so that all CD players will be compatible: uncompressed, 16-bit, 44kHz audio data. The Yellow Book publishes standards loose enough to allow computer manufacturers to make CD-ROM players, thus all CD-ROMs are not compatible with all players.

redundancy : The digital transmission of more bits than strictly necessary in order to improve the reliability of the transmission, such as ECC encoding. See error correction.

reel motor : In a tape recorder, the motor that controls the motion of either the feed and/or take-up reels or both.

reel size control : On a tape transport, the control that maintains proper tape tension by accommodating for various sized feed and/or take-up reels which have different amounts of angular momentum. Newer machines use an infrared or other beam to automatically measure and set the tensions for the various reel sizes. reference frequency

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