(1) Any device, for example, a keyboard, wind synth controller, or pitch-bend lever, capable of modulating a sound by altering the action of some other device.

(2) Any of the defined MIDI data types used for controlling the on-going quality of a sustaining tone via a controller message. In many synthesizers, the controller data category is more loosely defined to include pitch-bend and aftertouch data. See continuous controller.

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