See tonic and whole-step. For example, the relative minor of a major scale starts at either a sixth up or a third down on the major scale. To find the third, fourth, fifth, etc. of a tonic, count up that number of scale steps. For example, to find the sixth of a tonic, the major sixth would be nine half-steps above the tonic; the minor is diminished, i.e., it is eight half-steps above the tonic. The fifth is seven half-steps above the tonic or below it. A fourth is five half-steps above or below the tonic. The seventh is ten half-steps (minor) or eleven half-steps (major) above or below the tonic.
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