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Now looking at definitions starting with letter "c"

C-format : The international standard format for professional 1" videotape equipment. Developed by Sony, and sometimes called S-format after that company’s name. See B-format, Betacam, VHS.

C-Type : See Spectral Recording, noise reduction.

C-weighting : Unlike A-weighting, C-weighting measures frequencies uniformly over the audio spectrum. An SPL meter will allow the choice of either (or neither) weighting function. See B-weighting, equal loudness curves.

c.), will apply. Also called : Refers to SMPTE timecodetime code recorded on one of the audio tracks of a video tapemachine. Usually the highest-number edge track at -3dB.

C.C.I.R .: Comité Consultatif International Radio. An international radio standards committee, whose recommended recording pre-emphasis and post-emphasis curves are standard on all recorders in most European and some other countries. The European analog to the NAB.

C.R .: Con Repeats. As in, "Play from the beginning with repeats" is written, "D.C. (C.R.)."

cadence : A musical punctuation, indicating the end of an idea, or preparing the ground for transition to a new one; essentially a juxtaposition of two chords.

calendering : To reduce the asperities on the surface of a magnetic tape, the tape is squeezed between large steel rollers; a manufacturing process called calendering.

Calrec Soundfield microphone : See Soundfield microphone.

cancellation : See phase cancellation.

canned : Slang for pre-recorded, as opposed to live music or visuals.

Cannon connector : See XLR.

cans : Headphones.

capacitance : See impedance.

capacitor (C) : A device made up of two metallic plates separated by a dielectric (insulating material). Used to store electrical energy in the electrostatic field between the plates. It produces an impedance to an alternating current. Also called a condenser.

capo : The beginning of a piece of music. See D.C.

capstan : In a tape machine, the tape is moved by the effect of friction between a rotating motor-driven pillar, the capstan, and a pinch wheel, also called the capstan idler, that holds the recording tape securely against the capstan when a tape transport is in record or play mode. The capstan motor directly or indirectly drives the capstan and moves the tape past the heads. The capstan itself may be the extended shaft of the capstan motor.

capsule : In a microphone, the diaphragm or actual sound receptor, including, in various types of mics, the moving coil, ribbon, permanent magnet, or fixed condenser plate, and the housing in which these are mounted.

cardioid microphone : A directional microphone with an acceptance angle that is most sensitive to sounds coming from the front and sides, while rejecting sounds coming from the rear. Called cardioid because the polar pattern of the microphone is roughly heart-shaped. All directional mics have a proximity effect, whereby sound sources close to the mic will have an exaggerated low-frequency response. Supercardioids and hypercardioids are cardioids, but with a trade-off in the rear lobe. When using supercardioids and hypercardioids as sound reinforcement mics, it is important to note that the maximum rejection is not directly behind the mic as it is with a cardioid, but is off to the side between 110¢ª-126¢ª. However, a pair of hypercardioid microphones used as a stereo X-Y pair yields a very clean cardioid response pattern. See pressure gradient.

carrier : (1) A signal that is constant in amplitude or frequency and can be modulated by some other signal. The carrier itself does not transmit any information; all of the intelligence is in the modulation sidebands, which are in a band of frequencies on either side of the carrier frequency. Some signals, such as FM stereo, involve more than one carrier to encode the information, and the lower-frequency carrier is called a subcarrier. The subcarrier is mixed with parts of the audio signal and used to modulate the main carrier. In the receiver, the subcarrier is recovered by demodulation of the main carrier and then demodulated to recover its signal. See amplitude modulation, frequency modulation. (2) In FM synthesis, the carrier is the operator at the bottom of a stack in an algorithm, through which the composite effect of other modulating operators connected to it is heard.

cartridge : (1) The needle assembly at the end of a phonograph tonearm. (2) In broadcasting, a short, looped tape usually used for recorded messages and/or commercials.

CAS : Cinema Audio Society. A Los Angeles-based organization of film and television recording personnel, founded in 1966.

Cassette A French word meaning "little box." A cassette is a magnetic tape sound recording format. The cassette was originally inteded for dictation, but improvements in fidelity led the Compact Cassette to supplant reel-to-reel tape in most non-professional applications. Uses for the cassette include portable audio, home recordint, and data storage for early computers. Between the 1960s and early 1980s, the cassette was one of the three most common formats for prerecorded music along with the LP and the Compact Disc. Cassettes consist of two miniature spools, between which a magnetic tape is passed and wound. These spools and their attendant parts are held inside a protective plastic shell. Two stereo pairs of tracks (four total) or two monaural audio tracks are available on the tape; one stereo pair or one monophonic track is played or recorded when the tape is moving in one direction and the second pair when moving in the other direction. This reversal is achieved either by manually flipping the cassette or by having the machine itself change the direction of tape movement ("auto-reverse").

Cat. 43 : The Dolby Laboratories device that turns a Cat. No. 22 Dolby A-Type noise reduction card into a 4-band "noise fighter." The precise frequencies of the bands are optimized for production sound problems and differ from those used in standard noise reduction applications. In 1991, Dolby formally introduced SR-type noise reduction, called the Cat. No. 430.

cathode : The cathode in any electronic component, such as a silicon diode or a vacuum tube, is the electrode normally connected to the negative voltage.

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