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Now looking at definitions starting with letter "g"

G722 : An international telecommunications standard for data reduction used for limited-bandwidth speech over digital telephone networks; used only in basic ISDN applications.

gaffer : (1) On a film set, the head electrician, now more commonly called the "Chief Lighting Technician." (2) In film, the head of a crew, e.g., the "gaffing mixer" would be the re-recording mixer-in-charge, formerly known as the gunner.

gain : The output voltage of a device divided by its input voltage. Most passive devices have a negative voltage gain, and most active devices, especially amplifiers, have a positive voltage gain. Usually expressed in dBindB, this is correct only if the input and output impedances are the same, a condition not usually met. The square of a voltage ratio is a power ratio if the condition of matched impedances is met. See amplifier gain, impedance-matching.

gain control : The fader that controls the strength of the output signal of an amplifier. This term is misused on many amplifiers, since the gain remains constant, while the gain control actually adjusts the signal input level. Also erroneously called volume control on consumer equipment.

gain riding : Manual, real-time volume control during recording to prevent overload and distortion at loud levels, and to avoid noise problems at low levels.

gain stages : Electronic components (or sets of components) whose purpose is to provide signal amplification in an active device.

gain-before-threshold : In a compressor or limiter, the decibel gain applied to signals below the threshold level, i.e., before the compression circuit.

gallows arm : A type of mic stand which consists of a vertical section, to the top of which is fitted an adjustable rod which carries the microphone.

galvanic isolation : In transformer, galvanic isolation means that no electrical current can flow directly from one winding to the other as they have no direct electrical contact. However, a signal can flow between the windings via electromagnetic coupling.

gang : To mechanically or electrically couple two or more controls, such as post-effects processors, faders, etc. The combined assembly is then called a ganged fader, etc. See grouping.

gap : The distancespace between the pole pieces of a magnetic tape head. The gap width is the dimension of head gap measured along the tape path, typically 90 mils for a professional playback head, 150 mils for a record head, and 400 mils for an erase head. Sometimes specified in microns.

gap scatter : Any deviation from perfect head gap-track alignment on a multitrack.

gap width : See gap.

gate : (1) See noise gate. (2) A control voltage generated by any key on a synthesizer keyboard that instructs signal generators and other devices to begin operating. (3) The part of a movie camera that has an opening to allow light from the lens to expose the film, and that holds the film steady during that exposure. In a projector, the light source illuminates the frame held steady in the gate. The lens then projects the image onto a screen.

gated reverb : The use of a noise gate to cause a sudden termination of a reverberation effect, without allowing the normal decay segment to complete. This gives the sound an unnatural, industrial timbre.

gauge : The width of a particular film stock, e.g., 8mm, 16mm, 35mm, 65mm, or 70mm. See format.

gauss : (1) The unit of magnetic field strength, reflecting maximum flux density. (2) The unit of measurement for remanent magnetization on recording tape.

General MIDI (GM) : A subset of the MIDI specification which is a minimum set of requirements for MIDI devices aimed at ensuring consistent playback performance on all instruments bearing the GM logo. Some of the requirements include 24-voice polyphony, a standardized group (and location) of 128 sounds, that the synthesizer be 16-part multitimbral, and provides for a standard pitch encoding. Some manufacturers have proposed supersets to GM, e.g., Roland’s GS and Yamaha’s XG.

generation : A term for the number of successive times a sound has been copied on analog magnetic tape. The original recording is the first generation, a copy from that is a second generation, etc. Thought to be less relevant in digital recording, but that’s thoughtless.

generator module : A synthesizer module that generates sound, usually through an oscillator.

ghost : The slight pre-echo heard on a record one revolution before the beginning of a loud band, or just after the loud band stops. The waveform carved by the cutting stylus in the modulated groove deforms the adjacent blank groove, resulting in a faint repeat of whatever the modulated groove contains. Analogous to print-through on magnetic recording tape.

GIGE, GIG-E (GIGABIT ETHERNET) A shorthand way of saying “1000BASE-T.” See IEEE802.nx"

gink : In film, to screw up.

glass master : A glass disc with a light-sensitive coating, whose surface can be etched with pits by a laser beam as modulated by an audio signal. This surface is then sealed with a coating of silver. Used as a master for the dies from which CDs are eventually pressed. The laser device that burns the pits in the coating on the glass surface of a CD is called a glass master lathe.

glide : A function, also called portamento, in which the pitch pitch moves continuously from one note to the next, such as is possible on a violin or trombone, instead of jumping over the intervening pitches, such as is necessary on a keyboard instrument or woodwind.

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