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Now looking at definitions starting with letter "l"

L : The left-hand part of a stereo signal. Also known as A.

L-pad : A type of potentiometer that maintains constant impedance at its input while varying the signal level at its output. L-pads are most often used as an external balance control or variable attenuator (volume control).

L/A synthesis : Linear Arithmetic synthesis. A sound synthesis method developed by Roland that creates new sounds by attaching the attack portion of a sampled waveform to a simpler waveform. Human sound recognition is heavily influenced by hearing the attack transient part of a sound, but simple waveforms require less storage than samples. By combining the two, L/A synthesis is capable of relatively sophisticated sounds with modest data storage requirements.

labels : Special non-audio information encoded along with the audio in digital recording systems, used to encode information about the recording session, number of microphones used, dates, etc.

lacquer master : The disc produced from a master recording tape which is used to press vinyl copies.

land : (1) The flat area of vinyl between the grooves of a record. (2) The flat area between the laser-carved pits of a CD.

largo : Italian for "broad." A slow or stately tempo, 48-60 bpm.

later reflections : See early reflections.

Lavalier microphone : A small microphone, either condenser or dynamic, which can be easily hidden in a piece of clothing so as not to be seen by the camera. Also called a peanut microphone.

layback : Transfer of the finished audio mix back onto the video edit master. See layoff.

layback recorder : A videotape recorder, usually 1" format, on which a mixed sound track with all DME stems can be re-recorded in sync with the edited video master. Because of its special purpose, a layback machine should have less flutter and higher quality audio heads and electronics than on standard 1" video decks. Some layback machines designed especially for that purpose have no video reproduction capability at all. They merely read time code and do an extremely high-quality job of recording audio, and nothing else. The layback process is also called re-laying. See layback, layoff.

layer : See split point.

layering : Sounding two or more voices, each of which typically has its own timbre, from each key depression. Layering can be accomplished within a single synthesizer, or by linking two synths together via MIDI and assigning both to the same MIDI channel.

layoff : Transfer of audio and time code from the video edit master to an audio tape. See layback.

layover/layup : Transfer of audio onto hard disk or multitrack tape.

LBR : Laser Beam Recorder. The device used to create a CD master for duplication.

LC Concept : A system, developed by a French company of the same name, for implementing digital audio for cinemas. The system relies on the presence of an optical time code on the film which is used to synchronize the digital audio soundtrack stored on a separate magneto-optical disc reader, i.e., the film carries no sound at all, allowing for multilingual presentation from the same film print. This also solves the problem of getting high-quality audio onto film.


LCRS : Left, Center, Right, Surround. The four playback channels used in 35mm motion pictures, now available on home hi-fi systems. L, C, and R speakers are located behind the screen. The S channel surrounds the audience and may be mono or encoded stereo. See matrix, surround-sound. Variants include LCRC, when the fourth track is to be assigned to the center, or even CCCC, as in a center-channel dialog premix.

lead sheet : An abbreviated musical score, consisting of a melody line with chord names or symbols, and sometimes including lyrics.

lead-in : See spiral.

leader : Blank (unexposed) motion picture film attached to the beginning or end of a reel of film, usually used for threading a playback machine, and which contains information about the reelís content such as film title, reel number, etc. as well as the count-down section. Opaque leader is used in A - and B roll B - Rolls, in editing workprints and film soundtracks, to fill spaces between specific sound effects or musical segments, or to fill in for picture or sound segments to be added later. See also Academy leader, SMPTE Universal leader, plastic leader, fill leader.

leader tape : Nonmagnetic plastic or special paper tape that is spliced onto magnetic tape between musical selections and at the beginning and end of the magnetic tape, protecting the tape and delimiting the selections. Some leader is timed and has marks every 7" or 15" to allow the tape editor to insert the desired time between selections.

leadering : The process of removing the out-takes, count-offs, and noises between takes in a magnetic tape (and by extension, digital) recording. In analog magnetic tape recording, this process also involves inserting leader tape between songs.

leakage : The pick-up of unwanted, off-axis sounds by a directional microphone due to the fact that its directional pattern is not ideal or that the microphones and/or instruments are not sufficiently isolated from one another, as in a multitrack studio recording. Also called spill.

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