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Now looking at definitions starting with letter "p"

PA : (1) Public Address. The distribution of audio signals to loudspeakers for an audience. (2) A system of equipment, including a mixing desk, amplifiers, loudspeakers, etc., assembled to provide PA sound.

PA version : Public Appearance version. A prerecorded tape or just the instrumental backing of a song, with which a solo vocal artist can sing during public appearances to promote a record.

Packet : A unit of data encapsulated by a physical network protocol header provides control and touring information for directing the packet through the fabric while the trailer contains data to ensure packets are not delivered with corrupted contents. Other “packetized” transport mechanisms include IP, the Internet protocol and the new VXA tape format.

pad : (1) A switch or knob that lowers the level of an incoming signal before it reaches the rest of the circuitry. A short name for an insertion loss. Pads are used between audio devices if there is a danger of the output of one device causing a signal overload in the input of the other device. An input pad is also called a pot. (2) A sustained chord part which provides harmonic padding in a piece of popular music. (3) Drum pads.

paddles : See PEC/Direct.

PAF :"

PAL : Phase-Alternating Line. The UK television broadcast standard. Uses 625 lines at a frame rate of 25fps.

PAM : Pulse Amplitude Modulation. The first stage in digital sampling, in which pulses of fixed- width have their amplitude modulated by an analog signal, i.e., the height of the pulse is determined by the amplitude of the signal. It is followed by an encoding stage known as PCM.

PAN : A dedicated on-line internet service provider for the music industry.

pan : Short for panorama. (1) (noun) Refers to the left-right placement of a sound. (2) (verb) Moving a sound from stereo-center to one side or the other, either on a mixer or on a synthesizer, sequencer, etc. Usually this is not completely effective as panning alters only the relative amplitude of the sound left to right, and not the crucial aspect of delay. See Haas effect. (3) One of the defined MIDI Controller Change messages assigned to the parameter in a synthesizer which determines the stereo image of the sound, effectively making that controller a panpot.

pancake : A 10 1/2" reel of recording tape without the reel flanges. Recording studios often buy tape in this form and spool it onto smaller reels as it is used.

panic button : A hardware or software feature that simultaneously sends All Notes Off and Reset All Controllers commands to a MIDI system. Because some instruments don’t respond to All Notes Off commands, some panic buttons are designed to send Note Off messages (0-127) on all channels as well.

panpot : Short for panoramic potentiometer. An audio mixer control which is used for positioning the channel’s signal somewhere between the right and left speakers. See pan.

paper leader : See plastic leader.

parabolic reflector : A dish-shaped structure used to focus sound waves onto a microphone. The reflector faces the sound source and the microphone is mounted backwards, i.e., pointing at the center of the parabola. Used mainly to gather sound in outdoor locations, such as in wildlife recording. A satellite receiving dish for television uses a similar principle to focus incoming electro-magnetic waves.

parallel : In the connection of one signal or power source to more than one device or destination, the wiring configuration in which the input leads of all the devices meet at a common point. Signal or power routed to this point flows directly to each device. The opposite of seriales wiring, in which the source is wired to the input of one device, whose output becomes the input for the next, etc.

parallel connection : See bridging.

parallel interface : A protocol for transmitting data whereby all bits in a word (typically two or more bytes) are sent simultaneously. This method is generally more expensive to implement than serial protocols as the connectors and cable must have a pin/wire for each bit, plus a few extra for ground, handshaking, etc. This cost is offset by the faster transmission times.

parallel port : A connector on a PC-type computer which is used to connect devices which use a parallel interface, such as some MIDI interfaces and parallel printers.

parameter : A user-adjustable quantity that governs some aspect of a device’s performance. Normally, the settings (values) for all of the parameters that make up a synthesizer patch can be changed by the user and stored in memory, but the parameters themselves are defined by the operating system and cannot be altered.

parametric equalizer : A parametric equalizer is a sweep bandpass EQ, except that a third control is added to allow the width of the filter response to be adjusted. The width of the filter response is its Q value to be adjusted. , and Bbecause the filter response is curved, the actual frequency width is measured in increments of 3dB. Also called a peaking equalizer. See equalizer, graphic equalizer.

parasitic oscillation : A malfunction occurring in some audio devices, especially power amplifiers, in which the device will generate an ultrasonic signal during a part of the audio signal, only when the input signal is present and only during part of the audio waveform. Although the ultrasonic component is not directly audible, its existence modulates the signal, causing audible distortion and is potentially damaging in the signal and can to burn out tweeters.

parity check : In digital recording, one or more bits of data derived from the audio sample and appended to it as a part of the data16-bit word. The parity bit allows error-detection circuitry to determine whether the audio bits are correct, and therefore, whether they should be sent on for D/A conversion, discarded, or repaired. Also called a parity code.

partial : One of the sine wave components: the fundamental, harmonic, subharmonic, overtone, or a tone at some other frequency which forms party of a complex tone. Any component of a sound, whether or not it is an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency is a partial. The fundamental frequency is the first partial of a tone."

PASC : See Digital Compact Cassette.

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