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Now looking at definitions starting with letter "v"

V.S. : Volte Subito, meaning "turn the page."

V/O : See voice-over.

VA : An expression of the work which can be performed by an electrical device, but which ignores the inductance of the load. It is related to the watt in that it is also the product of potential difference inn vvoltages, (V) and current in amperes (A), but it ignores the power factor inherent in that unit.

valve : (1) See tube. (2) On musical instruments, a device for lengthening or shortening the air path through the instrument, resulting in lower or higher pitched tones, respectively. Valves are typically depressed with the fingers, such as on a trumpet or French horn.

vamp : In a performance of a song, the ending. Either a continuing repetition of the last chorus intended to be faded out during the mix, or a coda section with solo lines, leading to a hard ending. See outro.

variable area : The most common type of optical soundtrack used in motion pictures. The variable area track is a transparent line in a black background. The relative width of the transparent part is varied in accordance with the sound waveform. Most movie soundtracks today consist of two parallel variable area tracks, making possible the recording of stereophonic sound. See SVA.

variable-rate converter : A new type of digital recording, marketed by Kinetix, which attempts to provide very high resolution sound without resorting to a static increase in bit depth and sampling rate. Typical linear systems divide audio signals into equal quantums of amplitude and equal quantums of time, producing serially correlated sampling errors, or, errors which are necessarily related to one another and are, therefore, not only not random, and therefore not mutually cancelling, but potentially mutually reinforcing at specific bands within the audio frequency, making them more noticeable. Briefly, a variable-rate converter wobbles at random between 44.1kHz and 48kHz to distribute the sampling errors over a wide frequency range, with the general result that they are inaudible. The Kinetix converter also randomizes the quantization steps so that each successive sample is quantized differently. This renders quantization distortion is redistributed as (Gaussian) noise where it is shifted into the 15-18kHz range on output where it is unlikely to be audible. Variable-rate converters provide low bit-rates, do not require dither or compression, produce less background noise and distortion, with increased the audibility of low-level signals and enhanced stereo imaging. The downside is that the variable clock frequency causes problems for interfacing to other digital systems which is why the current Kinetix product includes its own recorder.

variation : A musical form in which a theme is presented and then repeated in a succession of different guises. These may include retaining the harmonic structure, while elaborating or otherwise varying the melody, changing the time signature and/or rhythmic framework, or using new harmonies, such as substituting the minor for the major of the harmonic sequence.

varispeed : A means of changing the speed at which a tape recorder runs in order to change the pitch or duration of a tape recording. Recently, this involves the use of a servo-controlled capstan, and the speed may be varied by changing the reference frequency of the servo.

varispeed oscillator : In tape recorders, an oscillator used to vary the frequency of the AC driving an AC capstan motor and, hence, the tape speed. Recorders whose capstans are driven by DC motors often have DC voltage controls for varispeed operation. These are often mistakenly called varispeed oscillators.

VCA : Voltage-Controlled Amplifier. A device that responds to a change in voltage at its control input by altering the gain of a signal being passed through it. Also, the digital equivalent of a VCA whichwhic is more properly called a DCA.

VCF : Voltage-Controlled Filter. A filter whose rolloff frequency can be changed by altering the amount of voltage being sent to its control input. Also, the digital equivalent of a VCF.

VCO : Voltage-Controlled Oscillator. An electronic oscillator whose output frequency is controlled by the application of an external direct voltage. VCOs are used extensively to generate musical signals in synthesizers. The ease by which their frequency can be controlled makes them very suitable for frequency modulation and complex sound synthesis. See DCO.

VCR : Video Cassette Recorder. A device for recording and replaying video signals on cassette tape. Cassette formats in current use are 1/4"", 8mm, 1/2"", Beta or VHS (consumer formats), and 3/4 U-Matic. See also VTR."

VDP : Video Disc Player.

velocity : (1) A type of MIDI data (range 1 to 127) usually used to indicate how quickly a key was pushed down (attack velocity) or allowed to rise (release velocity). A Note-On message with a velocity value of 0 is equivalent to a Note-Off message. (2) The velocity of sound: The speed at which sound waves propagate. The precise speed will depend on the density of the medium through which the sound waves travel: in air, at sea level and at 0˚C with 30% relative humidity, this is approximately 1088 ft/sec. (331.7 m/sec.) At average room temperatures it is slightly faster.

velocity compression : Each MIDI Note-On message has a velocity value between 1-127. The velocity corresponds to how hard the key was struck. In velocity scaling, (more accurately called a velocity offset), a group of notes is selected for editing and then their velocities are all cut or boosted in a linear manner: e.g., with a scaling value of -20, three notes originally recorded with velocities of 65, 91, and 37 would be set to play back with velocities of 45, 71, and 17, respectively. In velocity compression (sometimes called velocity scaling), the velocities are multiplied or divided by some factor so that the differences between them get larger or smaller. With a compression value of 75%, for example, the same three notes would be played back with velocities of 49, 68, and 28. This means that the note with the largest starting velocity is reduced the most, while soft notes play back closer to their original velocity, helping to keep them audible. Thus, compression is a better way to smooth out the transients in a passage that were played too loudly, without changing the musical dynamics of the piece.

velocity crossfade : The blending of multiple samples in varying proportions depending on key velocity. Sounds on samplers that are often programmed to use velocity crossfades include pianos and other tuned percussion instruments whose timbre changes character markedly depending on how hard a note is played.

velocity curve : A map that translates incoming velocity values into other velocities in order to alter the feel or response of a keyboard or tone module. Some devices have a preset range of velocity curves, and some allow users to program their own.

velocity of sound : See velocity(2)In air, sound travels at about 1,087 feet per second at 32˚F and 30% relative humidity. This velocity changes by about one foot per second, increasing as temperature goes down and decreasing as temperature goes up.

velocity offset : See velocity compression.

velocity scaling : See velocity compression.

velocity sensitivity : A type of touch sensitivity in which the keyboard measures how fast each key is descending. Compare with pressure sensitivity.

velocity switching : See cross-switching.

vestigial sideband : In AM, whereby a portion of one sideband is suppressed.

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