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Now looking at definitions starting with letter "o"

OBU : Outside Broadcast Unit. A team of technicians responsible for recording or broadcast away from a studio.

OCN : See EK neg.

octave : The logarithmic relation of sound frequencies used in most modern Western music. The frequency of each higher octave is twice the preceding one, i.e., an octave is a frequency ratio of 2:1. An octave band consists of all the frequencies within an octave. There is one octave between 100Hz and 200Hz, also between 1kHz and 2kHz. Octaves are perceived as equal pitch intervals, even though the true bandwidth in Hertz varies with the frequency level of the octave. The name arises from the musical practice of defining the eight notes of the scale within a doubling of the frequency. To ears, two frequencies an octave apart sound like the same note.

OE : Operator Error. A failure in any mechanical or electronic system caused by inappropriate action on the part of the humans setting up or operating the system.

off-axis : The opposite of on-axis. (1) Not directly in front of a loudspeaker. (2) Not within the optimal acceptance angle of a microphone, and therefore not recorded at full level. See directional microphone.

off-axis coloration : A dull or colored effect on sound sources that are not placed within the acceptance angle placed directly in front of the microphone. To avoid off-axis coloration, place mics so that they are aimed at sound sources that put out high frequencies, such as cymbals, when miking a large source. And, use a microphone that has a flat frequency response over the recording field, i.e., has similar polar patterns at midrange and high frequencies. Most large-diaphragm mics have more off-axis coloration than smaller mics (3/4"" diaphragm or under).""

off-line : See on-line.

off-mic : See off-axis.

offbeat : See beat.

offlay : To separate individual sound effects, pieces of dialog or other sounds originally on one roll of magnetic film, placing each on a separate roll to allow for individual equalization or other effects treatment.

offset : (1) A time-difference correction made between two or more devices to achieve proper synchronization. For example, if a VCR and multitrack are 1.5 seconds out of sync, instructing the synchronizer to calculate an offset for that amount could resync the sound and picture. (2) Also a correction that affects the onset of an event. For example, a velocity curve offset defines a threshold below which no velocity data is sent. When the velocity value exceeds the threshold, velocity response follows the selected curve.

ohm (Ω) : A unit of electrical resistance or impedance, that which opposes an electric current in a conductor.

Ohm’s Law : A basic law of electrical circuits, the mathematical relationship between electrical voltage, current and resistance: the current in an electric conductor is directly proportional to the voltage across it and inversely proportional to its resistance, i.e., the voltage and current in a conductor exhibit a linear relationship. It states that the current, I, in amperes in a circuit is equal to the voltage, V, in volts divided by the resistance, R, in ohms: thus, I=V/R. Ohm’s law works for DC, and for AC if the resistance is a pure resistance, but if the resistance has any reactive components, inductance or capacitance, the current depends on the frequency as well as the voltage.

OMFI : A file format first proposed by Avid to allow for digital audio data interchange among digital dubbers, editorial workstations, and hard disk editors.

Omni Mode : See MIDI Mode.

omnidirectional microphone : (Omni) A pressure operation microphone with a non-directional acceptance angle, i.e., one that is spherical, usually called an omni. See directional cardioid microphone.

OMS : Open Music System, (formerly Opcode MIDI System). A real-time MIDI operating system for Macintosh and PC audio applications. (and slated to be integrated into Windows’95.) OMS allows communication between different MIDI programs and hardware, so that a sequencer could interface with a librarian program to display synthesizer patch names (rather than just numbers) in the sequencer’s editing windows.

on-axis : See off-axis.

on-board effects processor : This can be used in a synthesizer to add reverb, chorusing, or other effects. On most synthesizers, it is possible to set the effect send level separately for each of the multitimbral parts. As opposed to outboard.

on-line/off-line : (1) The opposite of real-time, i.e., processing to an audio or other file which is not done at the same time as the human actions which initiate the processing. (2) In the videotape editing process, off-line is when the final edit list is compiled (on a less expensive machine), i.e., where only the EDL is created, but not conformed, in preparation for the final edit. On-line is where the video tape master is created from the EDL, including all effects using high-quality equipment, usually a 1" video deck. (3) In a network, any device which is able/unable to receive or transmit a signal. (4) In a system of synchronized devices, a slave device which is waiting for a particular time code value to be reached before it will play or record, etc., is said to be on-line.

one to one : See 1:1.

one-legged A term to describe a broken electrical connection. In a balanced line connection, a symptom is the loss of gain and low frequency content in the signal. In an unbalanced line connection, the signal will probably disappear altogether. See also open circuit.

one-shot sampling : A sound which is sampled once and then triggered as necessary.

opamp : Operational amplifier. A differential amplifier with extremely high input impedance and high gain. Its characteristics can be tailored to various amplification tasks by the application of proper feedback to produce various effects, but is characterized by a low, ground-referenced output impedance.

open air acoustic : In a studio, the simulation of open air acoustic is achieved by the use of screens to surround the sound source and a microphone. This ensures that much of the sound energy which travels away from the microphone is absorbed and is not reflected back to it. This absence of reflection makes the sound appear to be located outside of doors.

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