Now looking at definitions starting with letter "b"
ballistics : The dynamic behavior of the needle in a meter, such as a VU meter.
band : (1) An extent along the frequency dimension in which a signal exists is the band. For instance, an octave band is one octave wide. The AF band is 20Hz-20kHz wide. (2) The wider spiraled grooves that separate any two selections on a record. (3) Band is also used to indicate any single selection on a record, cassette, or reel-to-reel tape or CD, i.e., a track.
band masking : See frequency masking.
band part : A notated form of a piece of music, derived from a full score, usually containing only the music for a single instrument or pair of similar instruments.
band-limited : A signal is said to be band-limited if its frequency content is restricted to a particular frequency range. For instance, the output signal of a CD player is band-limited to 20kHz by the reconstruction filters built into the player.
band-reject filter : A filter that discriminates against signals in a specific frequency band. The most common band-reject filters reject a vary narrow frequency band, and they are usually called notch filters. The opposite of a bandpass filter.
bandpass filter : A filter which has both a high-frequency and low-frequency rolloff, and only frequencies in between are allowed to pass. When applied to sound synthesis, a bandpass filter makes the waveform sound like it is coming down a phone line as telephone lines cannot reproduce lows or highs. The opposite of a band-reject filter.
bandwidth : (1) The capacity of the channel through which information can pass. In audio, the rated bandwidth of a device is the portion of the frequency spectrum it can handle without significant degradation. In digital communications, the bandwidth is the amount of data that can be transmitted in a given period of time. (2) The bandwidth of a bandpass filter is the upper rolloff frequency minus the lower rolloff frequency, i.e., the frequency range in Hertz (Hz), or band, passed by the filter.
bank : (1) A set of patches. (2) A related set of items, e.g., a filter bank: a set of filters that work together to process a given signal.
Bank Select : A type of MIDI controller message which specifies which bank of (receiving) sequencer programs to use; a way to get around the 128 program limit specified by MIDI.
bantam : See TT connector.
bar : In written music, a grouping of pulses into a convenient unit which falls between two barlines. A barline is the vertical line which crosses the stave at regular intervals. The bar begins with the downbeat and ends immediately before the next downbeat, and will contain a constant number of beats of the type determined by the time signature, e.g., a bar of 4/4 will have four quarter-note beats.
Barkhausen effect : The tendency of the magnetic elements or domains on a magnetic medium to influence one another and to become magnetized in one direction or another as a group rather than individually. This means that a magnetic medium, such as recording tape, has a graininess in its magnetic makeup which is what causes most background noise, or tape hiss. Modulation noise, which is only present in conjunction with a recorded signal, is also caused by the Barkhausen effect, and is sometimes called Barkhausen noise.
barney : See blimp.
base : In magnetic recording tape, the thin ribbon of polyester or other plastic material to which the oxide and back coating are applied, measured in mils. For example, the base of most professional recording tape is 1.42 mils thick.
basic channel : In a MIDI device, the channel on which the device receives fundamental messages governing its operation, e.g., Reception Mode changes. In Mono Mode, the basic channel is the lowest-numbered channel.
basic track : The group of instruments or vocalists recorded first during a multitrack session. This group, usually including bass, drums, and standard rhythm section, will be played back through headphones to other instrumentalists who later overdub solos, lead or background vocals, or narration, and other sweetening or sound effects. See also backing track, bed.
basket : The metal frame of a loudspeaker.
bass : The very low end of the audio spectrum, approximately 20 Hz -200Hz or 300Hz.
bass build-up : An increase in molecular pressure variation, not molecular velocity, which occurs at low frequencies at room boundaries. The pressure nodes for all frequencies build up in the corners of rooms, particularly at the intersections of the walls and floor or walls and ceiling. These regions can roughly be thought of as resonant spaces, and energy can be trapped quite effectively by placing frictional absorbers at the desired quarter wavelength out into the room from the corner. See bass trap, boundary effect.
Bass Intermodulation (BIM) : Bass intermodulation is a type of distortion caused by the modulation of audible frequencies by subsonic noise.
bass reflex enclosure : A type of loudspeaker enclosure with a hole, or port, in the surface on which the speakers are mounted, usually the front. Since this allows some of the energy from the rear of the speaker cones to project into the listening area, bass reflex systems have relatively high efficiency. Sometimes called a ported enclosure or a vented enclosure.
bass tip-up : See proximity effect.
bass trap : A specially designed low-frequency sound absorber to reduce the effects of standing waves in recording studios. It is a tuned absorber and may have a narrow or wide range of frequencies over which it operates. It usually consists of resonant wood panels with absorptive material behind them, or suitably shaped slots in a wall or ceiling. See bass build-up, boundary effect.
beat : A regularly occurring pulse that can be heard or implied. (1) When two periodic signals are less than 20 Hz or so apart in frequency, and if they are mixed together, the amplitude of the combined signals will fluctuate as they alternately reinforce and cancel each other. These amplitude fluctuations cause loudness fluctuations and are called beats. See also difference tone. (2) In music, the sensation of a basic pulse from which all rhythm in the piece is derived. Beats are of three types: a downbeat is a strongly accented pulse, such as the first in the bar; an offbeat is any pulse other than the downbeat; an upbeat, also called the anacrusis, is a special case of offbeat which immediately precedes the first beat of the bar, and hence the bar line.
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