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Now looking at definitions starting with letter "e"

effects master : See effects send.

effects return : An input on a mixing console that receives the wet signal from the effects devices. The effects return inputs usually have volume controls (faders) to control the intensity of the particular effect in use.

effects send : An output from a mixering console that is connected to the input of an effects device. The effects send outputs usually have volume controls to set the effect send level, and the overall level of all the effects send outputs may be controlled by an effects master control operating from the effects bus. Effects sends (usually referred to in this case as aux sends) are typically used to feed effects processors such as reverbs, or are used to feed monitor systems, either speakers on stage or headphones in the studio. Whereas the main outputs of a mixer have a mix of everything that has a main fader turned up, the effects sends, with their own mix controls, have an independent mix. Effects sends are also used to feed the house mix to the PA system, when they are usually called post-fader sends. Also called an post-fader send, or aux (auxiliary) send. See insert send.

effects send bus : The mixing bus in a recording console used to mix the signal to be sent to the various effects devices. Also called the effects send bus.

effects track : (1) An edited track of magnetic film containing sounds other than dialog or music. There can be many effects prepared for a film mix. (2) In videotape productions whose sound is assembled on a multitrack tape, the track or tracks on which sound effects are recorded. (3) In the 35mm three-track mix of a motion picture, the recorded track that contains sounds mixed from all the effects tracks. See film soundtrack.

efficiency : A measure, usually applied to loudspeakers, of how much of the input electrical energy is converted to sound energy, expressed in percent. The remaining energy is converted into heat.

EFM : Eight-to-Fourteen Modulation. The data encoding scheme used in CDs in order to optimize the process of reading off the disk. Groups of eight data bits are regrouped into fourteen-bit blocks by EFM modulator during cutting of the CD master, permitting about 25% greater data density to be laser-inscribed on the disc and allowing easier error recognition. An EFM demodulator in the CD player decodes the data.

EIAJ : Electronic Industries Association of Japan.


eigentone : See standing wave.

EK neg : Eastman Kodak negative. Film laboratory colloquialism for "original camera negative." Used in film production to describe a release print made from the original negative, whether or not any of the film involved was actually made by Kodak, Inc. Also called an OCN, probably for Original Color Negative.

electret : If two metal plates have molten wax poured between them and a high DC voltage is sent across the two plates, this assembly yields a permanent electric field, in the same way that a magnet produces a permanent magnetic field. It is hypothesized that the polar molecules in the wax align, producing the electric field. An assembly of this type is used to provide a polarization voltage for small condenser microphones so that they do not require phantom power at 48V, but operate instead at a small pre-amplified voltage of 5V-12V. Microphones constructed in this way are called electret microphones.

electro-magnetic (EM) : The name for interactions between electrical and magnetic phenomena. The science of electromagnetics deals with the application of electrical principles and apparatus to magnetic phenomena. Transformers, antennæ, and phonograph cartridges are electromagneticelectro-magnetic devices. Longer explanation: There are four known forces operating in the universe: strong and weak nuclear forces, gravity, and electromagnetism, the latter two being the two manifestations of electromagneticelectro-magnetic force. These are mutually affective, i.e., a magnetic field can influence an electric field and vice versa as an electromagneticelectro-magnetic wave consists of both an electric field and a related perpendicular magnetic field. The electromagneticelectro-magnetic spectrum consists of (in order of increasing frequency) radio waves, microwaves, infrared light (heat), visible light, UV light, X-rays and gamma rays. All electromagneticelectro-magnetic waves propagate at the same speed, the speed of light.

electro-magnetic compatibility : Audio equipment that is designed to be immune to EMI is said to be electro-magnetically compatible. Shielding is one EMI technique, as is line-filtering, etc.

electro-magnetic pick-up : See piezo pick-up, DI.

electroacoustic : The name for interactions between electrical and acoustic phenomena. The science of electroacoustics deals with the application of electrical principles and apparatus to acoustical phenomena. Transducers, such as microphones and loudspeakers, are electroacoustic devices.

electroacoustic transducer : A device which converts sound waves to electrical signals. Transducers such as microphones, loudspeakers, and phonograph cartridges are electroacoustical devices. The primary problem with electroacoustic transducers is that they do not exhibit a linear frequency response except for a relatively small range of signal frequency and amplitude. See DI.

electronic feedback : See feedback.

electrostatic loudspeaker : A dipole speaker with a transducer that uses the audio signal to vary the strength of an electric field which, in turn, induces vibration in a metallic or metalized membrane. In principle, it is the reverse of an electrostatic microphone, and very different from the more common electromagneticelectro-magnetic voice coil arrangement. Used for consumer equipment as the power output is low. Electrostatic speakers are usually quite large, such as 6’ high by 2’ or 3’ wide. They are always direct radiators, and they must be large to attain reasonable efficiency at low frequencies. The radiation pattern of an electrostatic speaker in a free-field is similar to that of a figure-eight microphone. Because of their large size, electrostatic loudspeakers tend to become very directional in the high-frequency range. They are also characterized by a low impedance, and this is problematic for some amplifiers. See also planar loudspeaker.

electrostatic microphone : A class of microphone, of which condenser and electret are types, in which air pressure changes cause changes in the capacitance of a condenser. The capacitor is normally biased by a voltage which is supplied from batteries or via phantom power from the signal cable. The electret is an exception, as this requires such a small biasing voltage that it is possible to charge it permanently at the time of manufacture; Sennheiser mics use a proprietary biasing scheme which utilizes RF instead of a DC voltage.

electrostatic noise : A field of random electrical charges that can affect an audio line. Electrostatic noise can be generated by neon or fluorescent lighting, electrical motors, and other broad-spectrum emissions sources. Electrostatic noise is the electrical field which is generated by EMI.

elliptical equalizer : A special equalizer which causes the two channels of a stereo signal to be more nearly in phase at low frequencies, making the signal easier to cut into a record (an LP stylus has an elliptical cross-section).

elliptical filter : A multiple-element, lowpass or bandpass filter which has the steepest possible rolloff slope and a small amount of ripple in the passband, with one or more notch filters added to it. Elliptical filters are used as anti-aliasing filters in digital audio devices.

EMI : Electro-magnetic Interference. Stray electro-magnetic fields generated from any current-carrying conductor such as nearby motors, switching controllers, high-power contactors, etc. which cause a brief, intense pulse that often couples into low-level signal circuits causing noise. This interference can enter either directly into the signal path, or indirectly via the power or ground connection. High-power RF transmitters can cause similar effects, called RFI. See induction.

emphasis : See resonance.

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