Now looking at definitions starting with letter "f"
film : Now, 35mm film accommodates the 6-track digital sound, but previously almost all films released in 70mm from 1971-1992 which were originally photographed in 35mm and then blown up to the 70mm format specifically for playback with 6-track sound. The motion picture exhibition format from 1955-1971, 70mm, contained 6-track magnetic sound, using camera equipment manufactured by Todd-AO and Panavision. The camera negative was 65mm wide, with the additional 5mm outside the sprocket holes used for the magnetic stripes on release prints. Almost all modern 70mm prints in the U.S. have no magnetic track, but instead use DTS in conjunction with a wide timecode track outside of the perforations.
film chain : A device consisting of a motion picture projector and video camera, used to copy films onto videotape or to broadcast them directly. To adapt the 24 fps U.S. frame rate to the 30 fps NTSC video frame-rate, some chains use a projector with a five-bladed shutter, which shows each frame of film five times onto the vidicon tube of the video camera. The resulting 120 fps are regrouped four-at-a-time into 30 video images per second.
film footage : There are 16 fps per foot of a standard 35mm film image, each lasting four sprocket holes. At the standard rate of 24 fps, 35mm film runs at 90 feet per minute, or 18 inches per second. See frame.
film soundtrack : The audio component, including DME, of a film composition. There is usually a requirement for sound to be synchronized to the video image. This has been achieved by a variety of means, including the recording of sound on optical tracks etched into the film emulsion alongside the frames, fixing magnetic tracks on the film surface, synchronizing the film with a separate tape machine by means of mechanical sprockets, and electronic sync using systems such as SMPTE. See also Dolby Stereo, LC Concept, SR.D, pilot tone, layback recorder, source track.
filter : (1) A type of equalizing device for subtractively eliminating (subtractively) selected frequencies from the sound spectrum of a signal and perhaps, in the case of a resonant filter, increasing the level of other frequencies. See VCF. For example, a lowpass filter passes lower frequencies and removes the higher frequencies. By raising or lowering the filter rolloff frequency parameter, a sound will be made brighter or darker. (2) A device or MIDI software filter that eliminates selected messages from the MIDI data stream, usually called MIDI filtering by data thinning. See also running status.
filter resonance : The greater the resonance on a filter, the greater the effect of the filter: as resonance control is turned up, a little peak appears at the rolloff frequency. The harmonics that fall within that peak are accentuated. The greater the resonance, the higher the peak and the more pronounced is this effect. The effect of the swept resonant peak does not occur in real instruments. See also Q."
filter scaling : See keyboard scaling.
Filter, to Filter : Data processing to remove or ignore unwanted information.
final mix : The mixing of the final stems, which, when mixed and replayed represent the film’s finished soundtrack. In a stereo film (or surround-encoded TV programming) it is most common to record the DME stems on three pieces of 4- or 6-track magnetic film, with Dolby-SR noise reduction, or on analog or digital multitrack tape, or onto a digital dubber. These stems, also known as dub masters, are then used to create the print masters, the M&E mix, a mono mix, and possibly an airline version. For a non-surround-encoded stereo mix, then the stems might be in standard stereo format, but this precludes the subsequent production of a 5.1 mix, say for DTV.
finder : The user interface of the Mac operating system, allowing access to the file system, peripherals, and other components of the system hardware and software.
fine : The End.
fine cut : A stage in the editing of a film or video production at which the workprint or EDL is completed, denoting that the production is ready for final cut approval.
FIR : Finite Impulse Response: A class of filter designs whose impulse response falls to zero in a predictable, finite length of time, as opposed to an IIR (Infinite Impulse Response) design whose impulse response may never fully attenuate the impulse. A common use of FIR is to produce filters with a linear phase response. Filters such as analog anti-aliasing filters which have a very sharp rolloff slope produce unacceptable amounts of phase distortion in the output signal; FIR filters are used at the end of an oversampling A/D chain to eliminate any signal that would represent aliasing in the slower output datastream, without causing significant phase distortion.
FireWire : A digital audio transmission medium developed by Apple computer, designed to support dozens, possibly hundreds, of high-bandwidth audio streams. IEEE 1394 is designed to replace point-to-point AES/EBU connections, will support multiple data formats so that audio, video, MIDI, and control signals may all be sent over a single cable. FireWire also distributes power as well as data, permitting hot-plugging of devices. IEEE 1394 is designed to be a fully specified bus, bi-directional and with the ability to broadcast from a single source to multiple receivers. Currently (late 1998) there is a 4.5-limit between any two adjacent nodes, designed to support a simple, low-cost clocking mechanism to be built into the standard to support isochronous data transfers for audio and video. The isochronous clock embedded within the IEEE 1394 standard runs at 8MHz, or one "tick" every 125µs. This is problematic for audio signals which require upwards of 44MHz clock rates, so the FireWire standard is being modified to address the problem of high-resolution synchronization. The signal can traverse up to a maximum of 16 hops, effectively extending the distance to about 70 meters. This was originally developed to support the transfer of high-bandwidth signals between computer peripherals; the multi-layer IEEE 1394 standard also allows the use of many other cabling technologies, including Category 5 twisted pair copper wire and 50mm multi-mode optical fibre, the later permitting distances between devices of hundreds of meters. See also mLan.
fishing rod : See boom.
fixate : The process whereby a CD’s overall lead-in, program data and lead-out areas are written. This is done during the track-at-once recording process when the final session is written, allowing all of the data contained on the disc to be read by any CD or CD-ROM drive.
fixed formant : A frequency characteristic of a sound, e.g. human vowel sounds, are formants which are relatively fixed in frequency, even though the pitch of the voice may be changing as in singing. It is the fixed formant frequencies in the presence of the varying pitch of a musical instrument that shapes the instrument’s timbre and makes the instrument recognizable.
flamming : An undesirable audio occurrence in which one of the instruments used on a rhythm track strikes slightly behind the others. It is caused primarily by the improper application of delay or tempo change.
flange : The round metal sides of a tape reel that keep the tape aligned as it winds onto the hub.
flanging : Named for the original effects technique where a second audio tape playback deck was slowed by a thumb on the reel flange, flanging is a special audio effect where a delayed version of a signal is mixed with the original signal, creating a swooshing sound. This is caused by the fact that when the time delay is different for the two combined signals, there will be frequencies where the phase-shift is 180? and the signals will cancel, causing deep dips or holes in the frequency response curve called the comb filter effect. As the speed is varied, the frequency of the dips is swept across the frequency range, giving the swooshing sound. Electronic flangers contain an adjustable electronic delay line. If the time delay is very short, the effect is called phasing. See also notch filter.
flat : (1) The condition of a note which is, either deliberately or accidentally, lowered in pitch. This might be only a few cents or as much as a tone (double flat, bb). In music notation, a flat is indicated by the flat symbol (b), meaning lower the tone by a half-step. (2) The same as dry. Unequalized, uncompressed, and otherwise unprocessed, describing a signal from any source: mic, instrument, or tape playback. (3) The neutral position on a tone control, effecting no change to the signal. See center detent. (4) Film projection using non-anamorphic lenses. In the U.S. the term flat is synonymous with an aspect ratio of 1.85:1 widescreen. See anamorphic.
flat response : The faithful reproduction of the amplitude of an audio signal, specifically, variations in output level of less than one decibel above or below a median level over the entire audio spectrum. A system which has the same gain at all frequencies of interest will yield a graph of the gain versus frequency that will be linear.
flat wind : To employ a slower-than-normal fast forward or rewind mode on a tape transport in order to wind the tape smoothly and evenly onto the reel or hub, usually for storage. Flat winding prevents edge curling and other types of deformation damage. See also heads-out.
flattening : A general term for the process of moving the final stems, tracks, etc. to audio/video tape, usually involving a substantial reduction in the number of tracks on which the sound is carried and merged with the time-coded video. Also specifically refers to the process in ProTools™ whereby stereo audio and video is exported to a QuickTime movie or other format.
Fletcher-Munson effect : Fletcher and Munson measured the sensitivity of human hearing at various volumes and frequencies with the finding that humans hear best in the range of 3kHz-4kHz; the sensitivity falls off rapidly at lower frequencies and somewhat more slowly at higher frequencies. In other words, very soft sounds must be more powerful at frequencies lower and higher than 3kHz-4kHz in order to be heard. The loudness control on music reproduction systems was designed to compensate for the Fletcher-Munson effect. See equal loudness curves.
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