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Now looking at definitions starting with letter "g"

glissando : A direction for piano or harp by sliding the fingers over the keys or strings. Only the Cmaj and pentatonic scales can thus be played (on the white and black keys, respectively). Compare with arpeggio, portamento.

global : Pertaining to or governing all of the operations of a digital synthesizer, module, or other instrument.

GM : See General MIDI.

gnatís nut : See RCH.

gobo : Any kind of moveable sound-absorbing surface or panel used in recording sessions to acoustically separate sound sources. See baffle.

grabbing : The process of importing digital audio from an audio CD directly onto a computerís hard disk. Also called, by the verbose, digital audio extraction.

grain : (1) A subtle type of distortion found in some audio devices, mostly digital devices but sometimes also power amplifiers, possibly due to crossover distortion. (2) The ferrous particles on a tape which determine the amount of distortion caused by the Barkhausen effect. Digital media have grain only if the reconstruction filters are badly designed. See granulation.

granular synthesis : A sophisticated form of additive synthesis, combining sound elements, called grains, which have a specific duration (typically 1-50ms), waveform, peak amplitude, and bell-curve amplitude envelopes. Hundreds or thousands of grains are combined per second to form an event. An event has such attributes as start time, duration, initial waveform, waveform slope, initial center frequency, frequency slope, bandwidth, bandwidth slope, initial grain density (number of grains per second), slope, initial amplitude, and amplitude slope. Essentially, a sound event is sliced into time screens that contain the amplitude and frequency dimensions of hundreds of events. These screens are assembled into books that define a complete sound object.

granulation : An aliasing type of distortion in digital audio systems due to the uncertainty in the level of the samples is known as granulation, also called quantization distortion. If the sampling rate is an exact multiple of the input tone frequency, granulation results in harmonic distortion, i.e., the distortion components are at multiples of the input frequency. If not, the granulation resembles random noise, in which case it may properly be called quantization noise. See modulation noise.

graphic editing : A method of editing parameter values using graphic representation (for example, of envelope shapes) displayed on a computer screen. See graphic equalizer.

graphic equalizer : A graphic equalizer can be recognized by the row of faders across the front panel, each fader controlling its own narrow section of the audio spectrum. Other than the highest and lowest faders, which control shelving filters, each of the filters in a graphic equalizer is a fixed-frequency bandpass filter, where the range of each fader is fixed, and the width of each individual band of a third-octave equalizer is actually wider than a third-octave. See equalizer, parametric equalizer.

ground : Refers to a point of, usually, 0V, and can pertain to a power circuit or a signal circuit.

ground lift/lifter : The practice of or a device for disconnecting the shield on one end of a balanced cable to eliminate a ground loop. Sometimes in the form of a switch found on some audio adapter boxes or DI boxes, this switch or cable modification disconnects the chassis ground of a device.

ground loop : The situation which arises when two pieces of equipment, each having an established chassis ground internally connected to signal ground, are then connected via a shielded cable. This forms a relatively large loop from chassis ground to signal ground (shield), shield ground to signal ground, and chassis ground back to chassis ground. Because the electrical pathway formed in this manner has a finite impedance, a difference in potential may occur from one end of the loop to the other, allowing an AC-frequency signal (usually at AC line voltage--50Hz or 60Hz, depending on where one is) to form in the circuit. This signal will manifest itself as a hum which can, in extreme cases, be louder than the audio signal. The solution is to break the screen connection between the two devices, ideally at the end of the cable that is plugged into a receiver, such as a mixer or amplifier with a ground lifter.

group delay : The rate of change of phase of the response of a device or a system as a function of frequency. A pure time delay, equal at all frequencies, gives a constant slope ofphase versus frequency. If, in an audio component (frequently a passive network), this slope is not constant but varies with frequency, the component is said to produce group delay distortion. This is equivalent to a time delay that varies with frequency, called a group delay because the distortion occurs within a group of adjacent frequencies, but not over the entire spectrum. The audible result is a loss of precision in musical transients; they are spread out or smeared in time and a more diffuse stereo image results.

group fader : A control which sums and adjusts the output of several other faders which have been routed to that group. See gang, grouping.v grouping

group master : See submaster.

grouping : A feature of some sequencing programs or mixers which allows for the assignment of several faders to a group master fader that controls the overall level for the group. The software analog of a hardware gang.

grunge : See mid-range smear.

guard band : A narrow, unrecorded area between the recorded tracks of a magnetic tape in order to reduce crosstalk between the channels of the tape recorder, resulting in each track of the tape using slightly less than 1/n tracks-width of the tape.

guide vocal : In multitrack recording, a preparatory vocal track to serve as a template for the later recording of instrumental tracks, eventually replaced by a final version.

Guillotine splicer : A type of splicer for motion picture film and magnetic film that is generally used to assemble the workprint and edited soundtracks. For picture cutting, it slices along the frame line between images. A second blade can slice magnetic film diagonally to avoid pops on playback. While holding the two ends of picture or mag film to be joined in a sprocketed channel, non-stretching tape is applied, completing the splice. The editor can undo the splice if the result is not satisfactory, and may also reassemble the pieces in their original, or any other, order. Also called a tape splicer.

gun microphone : A highly directional type of microphone used for long-distance recording, e.g., for wildlife or surveillance. Also called a rifle microphone, shotgun microphone, or interference microphone.

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