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Now looking at definitions starting with letter "m"

MASH : Multi stage noise shaping - the latest digital/analogue technology.

masking : A subjective phenomenon wherein the presence of one sound will inhibit the ability to hear another sound. See frequency masking.

master : (1) A gain control on a sound reinforcement or recording console that controls the level of a mixture of signals whose levels have been set by the individual channel-mixing pots. A console will have a master gain control for each output signal. (2) The final version of a performance which will be used for the production of copies in a film production; this is the master dub. See APRS label system, bin-loop master, chip, cut (3), direct metal mastering, direct-to-disc, edit decision list (EDL), edit master, glass master, lacquer master, post-production, stamper, transfer, two-track, master tape, mastering lathe. (3) One device within a MIDI network or recording/dubbing chain which provides the master clock.

master balance : A message of the Universal System-Exclusive type used for controlling the balance between the left and right outputs of a multitimbral synthesizer, in preference to adjusting individual channel balance.

master clock : A separate clock signal which is sent from a master device to all slaves to maintain tape position synchronization. In this process, the master clock device sends a signal from a dedicated word-clock output to a dedicated word-clock input on all slave devices over a separate cable, typically terminated with a BNC connector. Master clock generators are available at various accuracies, measured in ppm (parts per million): The AES defines Grade 1 clocks as having a long-term accuracy of 1ppm and Grade 2 clocks as 10ppm. The IEC specifications are Level I 50ppm for "pro" equipment, Level II (consumer) accuracy at 1,000ppm, and Level III has inaccuracy measured in days. It is important to be aware of the master clock spec on digital mixers, as some are specified with IEC Level II clocks, making attachment to high-resolution recorders problematic, and in this case, an external clock would be necessary to provide sufficient timing accuracy.

master controller : In a MIDI network, the device which a musician plays in order to control other devices in the network. Typically a keyboard, but a master controller could also be drum pads or some other MIDI generator such as a string or wind controller.

master dub : See master(2).

master fader : A fader to which the groups or channels in a mixing desk are connected. It normally controls the level of the stereo output from the desk.

master tape : (Old) Records are usually made from tape recordings, and the edited tape from which the acetate is cut is called the master tape. It could be an original recording, but more often it is a copy of original tapes.

mastering : The stage between mixing and the pressing plant, where cuts are assembled in the final order and the master(2) prepared for duplication: song-to-song levels are equalized, the stereo image is properly balanced, fade-ins and -outs and any crossfades are added, any last-minute compression/limiting is added to even out the dynamic range of the compilation as a whole. If necessary, additional effects such as some reverb are added to smooth any abrupt transitions, and clean-up all remaining noise: hum, pops, clicks, crackles, etc. (Old) The common term for the process of transferring the musical signal from a magnetic tape, usually called a master tape, to an acetate master disc, being the first step in the manufacture of phonograph records from tapes.

mastering lathe : A lathe bed and carriage mechanism (the actual cutting stylus or head, arm, and armature). Using a high-wattage amplifier to drive the cutting stylus, with a pitch/depth control computer that controls the depth, width, and spacing of grooves being cut, the mastering lathe makes the master lacquer disk from which metal parts and then vinyl records are ultimately made.

matching : See impedance-matching.

matching transformer : Short for an impedance-matching transformer. Used to interconnect devices or cables of different impedances. Necessary, for example, when using a low-impedance microphone with a guitar amplifier, which has high-impedance inputs. The transformer increases the energy transfer between the microphone and the input, preserving the high-frequency response in the signal.

matrix : (1) A term used to describe any system which allows devices to be connected as though they were arranged along the two axes of a grid, i.e., a structured form of patching. For example, the VCS range of modular synths, where the outputs of the various modules are connected to the left edge of a grid of holes, while their inputs are ranged along the top edge. Electronic versions of a matrix are implemented in software. (2) See matrixing.

matrix modulation : A method of connecting modulation sources to destinations in such a way that any source can be sent to any combination of destinations.

matrixing : Matrixing is the linear mixing of two or more signal channels at specific amplitudes and phases to form two or more new signals. These new signals can be combined in similar ways to recover the original signals. The circuit topology used for matrixing is called a matrix. Matrixing is a linear addition of signals used to encode directional information, e.g., Scheiber matrixing used in Dolby Surround-sound, and it is not the same as modulation.

MAX : A real-time MIDI processing and graphic programming environment. Max software was first developed at IRCAM , the French national computer music center and later commercialized by Opcode Systems.

maximum output level (MOL) : For an audio device such as a tape recorder, the MOL is generally taken to mean the output signal level that results in 3% harmonic distortion at low frequencies and usually 3% intermodulation distortion at high frequencies. Any higher signal output than the MOL will result in rapidly increasing distortion, and is a function of both input signal frequency and of the device itself. MOL also applies to a specification for analog magnetic tape. The MOL for a tape is frequency-dependent; all magnetic tape saturates faster at higher frequencies; it is also speed-sensitive: as the recording speed is slowed, the distortion point is lowered. MOL may be referenced to an absolute flux level, or to a test tape. See third harmonic distortion.

MCI : Media Control Interface. A multimedia specification designed to provide control of onscreen movies and peripherals like CD-ROM drives.

MCPS : Mechanical Copyright Protection Society. The UK equivalent of BMI/ASCAP. See also PRS.

MD : See MiniDisc.

MDM : See Modular Digital Multitrack.

meantone : In tuning, the meantone system was a common technique used for keyboard instruments before equal temperament came into general use. Meantone temperament is a tuning in which the thirds are turned pure, and all of the fifths are one-fourth of a diatonic comma too narrow. All the whole tones are equal and are precisely half a major third, hence the name meantone. It provides for the pure intonation of the key of C major and those lying near it at the expense of the more extreme sharp and flat keys, which is the reason why remote keys were rarely used in keyboard works before the adoption of equal temperament. There was, for example, a pure FA and BB, but these notes were out of tune when used as GB or AA.

measure : Also called a bar. The space between two bar lines in music notation, suggesting a unit of time. Measured music has sections with a well-defined meter, and which can be easily notated within bar lines. Almost all western music of the past five hundred years is of this type.

mega : Prefix meaning "one million times the unit that follows," e.g., a megawattbyte is one million wattsbytes. See M.

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