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Now looking at definitions starting with letter "v"

VFO : Variable Frequency Oscillator. An oscillator used in the generation of electronic music and for audio equipment test signals. Often the VFO is a simple knob or wheel. VCOsO s are a subtype of VFO which are voltage-controllable.

VHF : Very High Frequency. ElectromagneticElectromagnetic waves with frequencies between 30 MHz- and 300 MHz. The subrange of 88.1-108 MHz is used for FM radio broadcasting in most countries. In the U.S., channels 2-13 on most television sets. Compare with UHF.

VHS : Video Home System. A domestic standard 1/2 cassette formatsystem for making analog video recordings. The commercially more successful of two such systems which first appeared in the early 1980ís, the other being Sonyís Betamax. Both formats have been used as a medium for recording digital audio data: Betamax in Sonyís PCM-F1 system, while the successor to VHS, S-VHS is used in the ADAT digital multitrack system."

vibrato : A slow pitch oscillation; a periodic change in frequency, often controlled by an LFO, with a periodicity of less than 20Hz, most commonly about 5Hz-8Hz. Vibrato is created in the wave oscillator when a modulation signal is sent from an LFO into the frequency modulation input of the oscillator. In synthesizers, vibrato depth is the intensity of the effect, and vibrato delay is the amount of time a note is set to sustain before the vibrato effect enters. Compare with tremolo.

video black : A video signal composed of all black, containing horizontal sync, vertical sync, and color burst information. Video black is used to pre-stripe video tape as the master clock (35.8MHz for NTSC) for sound synchronization. SMPTE timecode may be derived from the color burst data. Also called black-burst color signal, but video black is actually black in color.

video sync : A subset of video black which does not necessarily contain color burst signal. It uses horizontal sync or vertical sync to provide aA very stable video reference source generated by an extremely accurate clock. The signal is used to control the speed of the video machines, digital audio machines, and is used as a timing reference to ensure accurate synchronization. See master clock, word clock.

Video-8 : A consumer video recording format which uses 8mm tape in a small cassette. It was developed for use in hand-held cameras and other portable equipment, but has also been adopted for use in some digital audio systems, such as A-DAM.

Virgin Looping The process of recording onto a blank piece of mag film, which would later be manually synced to the picture. See looping and lip sync.

virtual track : A synthesizer part, as opposed to a recording of an acoustical instrument.

vision mixer : A device for mixing video signals from a number of sources. The relative amounts of the signals are controlled by faders, primarily for mixing the output of television cameras.

VITC : Vertical Interval TimecodeTimecode. A means of recording SMPTE timecode or other timecodetimecode into the vertical blanking interval on a high-end, pro video recorder, offering the advantage of being readable even when the tape is not moving. As the VITC signal is recorded by the rotary heads, it must be recorded at the same time as the video signal, whereas timecodetimecode signals recorded on a VTRís linear audio tracks can be striped either before or after the video picture is recorded.

VLF Very low Frequency Station a.k.a. subwoofer box.

VMAx : Virtual Multi Axis. A 3D audio technology developed by the Harman Interactive Group which purports to deliver ambisonic sound through two channels. VMAx 3D Interactive is a version aimed at multimedia computer applications, while VMAx 3D VirtualTheater™ is the edition of VMAx used for decoding Dolby ProLogic and AC-3 programs for two-channel playback. There is also a VMAx Stereo Enhancement for adding width and depth to stereo imaging.

VOC (.VOC) : A file extension specifying the Creative Labsí Sound Blasterô audio format. Typically encountered as FILENAME.VOC. Originally 8-bit, newer cards accommodate 16-bit stereo sound. VOC files support compressed or uncompressed data at a range of sampling rates up to 44.1kHz. Compression options are from 2:1 to 4:1. Not as popular as the .WAV format."

vocal booth : An acoustically isolated booth in which one or more singers can perform while rhythm instruments are playing in the studio, but that keeps leakage of these instruments from reaching the mics located inside the booth. The same booth can be used to house acoustic instruments being played at the same time as amplified ones in the studio, or vice versa.

vocal score : A notated form of vocal music in which any orchestral parts are expressed as a piano (treble and bass clef) score, i.e., there is no full score.

vocoder ing: Voice Operated reCOrDER. A signal processor (considered one of a family of analysis synthesizers) that imposes the amplitude envelopes of one input (control) signal upon a second input (program) signal. In the most common application, someone speaks into a microphone to provide a control signal; the amplitude characteristics of the speech elements are superimposed on an input instrument, giving the latter a "talking" quality. Vocoders use a bank of bandpass filters to dynamically analyze the frequency spectrum of the control signal and thus continuously derive the amplitudes of the component frequency bands. The resulting amplitude envelopes are used to continuously control the operation of another, identically tuned bank of filters. Any program signal applied to the input of this second bank will be shaped by the amplitude envelopes of the control signal, yielding the same spectral characteristics as the control input.

voice : (1) The simplest, individual sound- producing circuitry (generator module) an instrument possesses; an element of synthesizer circuitry capable of producing a note, which typically consists of the combination of oscillator/filter/amplifier with associated envelopes for the filter and amplifier. The polyphonic capability of a synthesizer is defined by now many voices it has. . See voice channel. (2) In Yamaha synthesizers, a patch. (3) The instrument for human speech or singing.

voice channel : A signal path containing, (at a minimum,) an oscillator and a VCA, and capable of producing a note. On a typical synthesizer, two or more voice channels, each with its own waveform and parameter settings, can be combined to form a single note.

voice coil : The transducer part of a loudspeaker, consisting of a coil of wire mounted on a frame. Variations in the electrical signal passing through the coil cause it to be repulsed from, or attracted to, a fixed magnet in proportion to the frequency and amplitude of the signal. The resulting motion is mechanically transmitted to an attached cone, whose piston effect excites the surrounding air to reproduce recorded sound.

Voice of the Theater™ : A motion picture theater speaker system developed in the 1940s by the Altec Lancing Corporation, and the industry standard for forty years until the introduction of direct radiator speakers. The Altec Lansing loudspeakers included the single-cabinet A-7 and A-4, and the dual-cabinet A-2 for larger theaters.

voice stealing : A process in which a synthesizer that is being required to play more notes than it has polyphony switches off some currently sounding voices (typically those that have been sounding the longest or are at the lowest amplitude) in order to assign them to play new voices. See dynamic voice allocation.

voice-over : An audio track containing an announcement or narration to accompany a TV or film advertisement, recorded by a person who does not appear on camera. Often abbreviated as V/O. See also post-sync.

voiced : An amplifier which is designed to have a frequency response which is shaped to a particular instrument, rather than being completely flat. An example are the loudspeakers systems used for electric guitars and basses. The amplification has a very limited frequency response which filters out the worst of the distortion due to the amplifier.

voicing : (1) The process of creating a sound on a piano, organ, or synthesizer; voicing means much the same thing as programming. (2) Room equalization.

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