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Now looking at definitions starting with letter "o"

output : The point of exit of a signal from a system, e.g., a section in a mixermixing desk or other device where the signal is transmitted to a device external to the mixer, such as an effects processor, headphones, or monitors.

output level : See nominal level.

output impedance : The output impedance of a device is the actual impedance at the source output terminals. See impedance-matching.

output point : See channel insert.

output power : The lower level that a system outputs under a specified load. Expressed in VA or RMS (watts). See also power bandwidth, rated load.

outro : A term derived from intro and which refers to a section at the end of a piece of music; used in popular music in preference to the classical term coda. It leads to or replaces, in the case of a fade-out, a definite ending. See vamp.

overbias : The use of more bias current in an analog magnetic recorder than is required for maximum sensitivity. Overbias will reduce the distortion and the sensitivity to dropouts, but will also reduce the high-frequency response, so compensatory equalization control must be applied.

overdrive : To input a signal to an audio device in such magnitude that an overload occurs. Specifically, a characteristic electric guitar sound in which a guitar amplifier (preferably a tube-type) is overloaded to the point of clipping. A similar result can be provided by an effects unit of the same name. Not to be confused with fuzz, in which the distortion is introduced before the amplification stage.

overdub : To record additional parts alongside (or merged with) previous recorded material, either by a mixing and/or re-recording process or by adding a new track in multitrack recording. Overdubbing enables one-man band productions, as multiple synchronized performances are recorded sequentially. Also called tracking or multitracking.

overflow : MIDI devices invariably have a limited amount of polyphony; any attempt to exceed this by sending too many simultaneous notes will result in an overflow of MIDI data. If a device has an overflow facility, Note On messages beyond its total polyphonic capacity are passed out to a second device for it to voice. Otherwise, the condition results in voice-stealing.

Overhead : In IT land, overhead refers to any service, protocol or process that requires resources in excess of those needed by default.

overlap : The film dialog equivalent of an overdub. (check)

overload : An audio device is overloaded when the input signal level is so high that it drives the device out if its linear range and into distortion or clipping. Overload may be continuous or may affect only transients in musical waveforms.

overmodulation : A situation which occurs when the amplitude of a signal exceeds the limits of the recording or broadcasting system. This causes distortion and can, in exceptional circumstances, damage equipment through which the signal passes. The opposite of undermodulation.

overs : Input peaks recorded onto a digital medium in excess of 0VU, causing a crackling, ripping type of distortion. See clipping, headroom.

oversampling : The principle of sampling a signal at an integer multiple of the normal sampling rate. The factor can be as little as two times, or much more. The effect is to distribute a fixed level of quantization noise over an ultrasonic frequency range, diluting the noise in the audio bandwidth and improving the S/N ratio. See also quantization error, Shannon’s channel capacity theorem.

Oversampling method used in a CD player to reproduce digital information as faithfully as possible in analogue form, a part of the digital to analogue conversion process.

overshoot : (1) (noun) If a compressor or limiter is subjected to a sudden large input signal level, its attack time may not be fast enough to prevent the output from being momentarily too high. This initial excessive level is called overshoot, and its severity depends on the speed of the device. (2) (verb) Imperfect transient response in an audio device will result in the waveform going past the desired value on fast signal transitions, as is frequently seen on square waves and the impulse responses of CD players.

overtone : Overtones are produced by a musical instrument and are higher in frequency than the fundamental. They may or may not coincide with the frequencies of a harmonic series. The overtones define the harmonic spectrum of a sound. The fundamental is the first partial, so the second partial is the first overtone. Overtones are defined as the harmonics above the fundamental, but in common usage they are taken to mean any partials above the fundamental. In most instruments, the higher overtones are lower in volume than the lower overtones. See subharmonic.

Oxmoor EQ System can superimpose up to eight frequency response curves on the otherwise flat monitor chain, creating a full 20-20K Hz spectrum.

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